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To document the trends of sensitivity and to find whether it is necessary to change antibiotics in selected patients according to the sensitivity test results in our clinical practice.
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Three hundred consecutive patients were randomized (1: 2: 2) into one of the three following regimens: (i) OAC (60); (ii) OA-OACM (120); and (iii) OACM (120). Eradication was generally confirmed by a [(13)C]urea breath test at least 4 weeks after the end of treatment. Adverse events and compliance were assessed. EudraCT: 2011-006258-99.
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The study was a prospective, single-center trial with a parallel group design. After the selection procedure, consecutive out-patients were assigned to one of six study groups using random sampling numbers. All patients received amoxicillin 1,000 mg b.i.d. and clarithromycin 500 mg b.i.d. along with ranitidine bismuth citrate 400 mg b.i.d., or omeprazole 20 mg b.i.d., or lansoprazole 30 mg b.i.d., or rabeprazole 20 mg b.i.d., or pantoprazole 40 mg b.i.d., or esomeprazole 40 mg b.i.d. for 14 days.
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This study describes two new bla CMY-2-type genes in E. coli isolates, located within a C. freundii-derived fragment, which may suggest their mobilization through mobile genetic elements. The presence of the three different resistance regions in these isolates, with diverse genetic determinants of resistance and mobile elements, may further contribute to the emergence and spread of these genes, both at a chromosomal or/and plasmid level.
This study was designed to describe antibiotic treatment patterns among patients with CAP treated in ambulatory settings in light of the IDSA guidelines.
The systematic review will provide insight in the extent and methods used for follow-up assessments after obstetric RCTs in the past. The prediction models can be used by future studies to extrapolate short-term outcomes to a long-term horizon or to indicate for which neonates long-term follow-up is required, as their outcomes (either absence or presence of sequelae) cannot be adequately predicted from short-term outcomes and clinical background characteristics.
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As part of a study evaluating the effect of H. pylori therapy on iron deficiency, we conducted a household-randomized, open-label treatment trial involving children aged 7-11 years in 10 villages in western Alaska. We screened 690 children, of whom 219 with iron deficiency and H. pylori infection (determined on the basis of positive results of the 13C urea breath test) were enrolled in the treatment phase of the study. These 219 children received treatment with iron sulfate alone (the control group) or with iron sulfate combined with a 2-week course of lansoprazole, clarithromycin, and amoxicillin (the intervention group). Children in the intervention group who were allergic to amoxicillin or macrolides received metronidazole. Children in the intervention group who did not respond to treatment were re-treated with a 2-week course of metronidazole-based quadruple therapy.
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Fecal Enterobacteriaceae were enumerated onto EMB agar containing amoxicillin (AMX). A total of 173 CF isolates and 41 sibling isolates were grouped into seven Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) clusters and identified through 16S rRNA and rpoB sequence analysis.
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Nasopharageal swab specimens were collected from randomly selected less than 5-year-old out-patients with upper respiratory infection in Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou, 2000 - 2002. Capsular typing was performed by the Quellung reaction tested using a simplified chessboard system for typing of S. pneumoniae. The coverage rate of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (4, 6B, 9V, 14, 18C, 19F and 23F) was calculated. Antibiotic susceptibility was determined by E-test MIC method for beta-lactam antibiotics (penicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, cefaclor, cefuroxime and ceftriaxone).
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This study was a multi-centre, multi-country surveillance of 27247 Gram-positive and Gram-negative isolates collected from 131 study centres in 44 countries from 1997 to 2000. MICs of gemifloxacin were compared with penicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, cefuroxime, azithromycin, clarithromycin, trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole, ciprofloxacin, grepafloxacin and levofloxacin by broth microdilution. Penicillin resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae was extremely high in the Middle East (65.6%), Africa (64.0%) and Asia (60.4%) and lower in North America (40.3%), Europe (36.9%) and the South Pacific (31.8%). Macrolide resistance in S. pneumoniae was highest in Asia (51.7%) but varied widely between laboratories in Europe (26.0%), North America (21.6%), the Middle East (13.7%), the South Pacific (10.6%) and Africa (10.0%). All the study quinolones were highly active against penicillin-resistant and macrolide-resistant S. pneumoniae. Overall, gemifloxacin had the lowest MIC(90) at 0.06 mg/l with MICs 4-64-fold lower than ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin and grepafloxacin against S. pneumoniae. Gemifloxacin MICs were more potent than grepafloxacin > levoflaxacin > ciproflaxin against the Gram-positive aerobes and shared comparable Gram-negative activity with ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin.
There is a global emergence of resistance against commonly prescribed antibiotics. Empirical antibiotic prescribing should be guided by local antimicrobial susceptibility patterns.
Neutrophils possess a concentrative transport system for AZM that may enhance killing of A. actinomycetemcomitans. Its effects are most pronounced when neutrophils are greatly outnumbered by bacteria.
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Inbred weaned Wistar albino rats were used. Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 was used to induce peritonitis. Rats with peritonitis were allocated to 4 groups: group 1, control; group 2, laparotomy; group 3, laparoscopy; group 4, laparoscopy + laparotomy and were killed at the end of the second hour of peritonitis. Serum, peritoneal fluid, and intraabdominal organs were taken for microbiological (biochemical markers-urease, citrate, indole; virulence factors-biofilm, protease, gelatinase, adherence), systemic immunologic (interleukin 1 [IL-1]alpha, IL-1beta, tumor necrosis factor alpha, IL-6), and regional histopathologic evaluations. Isolated strains were tested against minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and sub-MICs of amikacin and amoxicillin.
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The number of received spontaneous adverse drug reactions reports by year per 10,000 inhabitants, the seriousness and outcome of reactions, the reporting groups, and the top ten molecules which contributed to the highest number of reports.
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Out of 235 pregnant women included, 66 (28.0%) were symptomatic and 169 (71.9%) asymptomatic. the prevalence of bacteriuria among symptomatic and asymptomatic pregnant women were (12.1%), and (14.7%) respectively, with no significant difference between the two groups (P = 0.596), and the overall prevalence of UTI was (14.0%). In multivariate analyses, age, gestational age, parity, and history of UTI in index pregnancy were not associated with bacteriuria. Escherichia coli (42.4%) and S. aureus (39.3%) were the commonest isolated bacteria. Four, 2, 2, 3, 4, 2 and 0 out of 14 E. coli isolates, showed resistance to amoxicillin, naladixic acid, nitrofurantoin, ciprofloxacin, co-trimoxazole, amoxicillin/clavulanate and norfloxacin, respectively.
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Antimicrobials have been useful in the treatment of H. pylori-related dyspeptic diseases. However, emergence of resistant strains often decreases the eradication rates of H. pylori infections. Large-scale use of antimicrobials will lead to the diminishment of susceptible strains while allowing resistant survivors to outgrow and spread resistance genes. The aim of this study was to assess the change in antimicrobial resistance rate of H. pylori isolates from 2005 to 2008 and indicate the consequences of indiscriminate and widespread use of antimicrobials against H. pylori- and non-H. pylori-related infections.
Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a common cause of pediatric admission to hospital. The objectives of this study were twofold: 1) to describe the clinical characteristics of CAP in children admitted to a tertiary care pediatric hospital in the pneumococcal vaccination era and, 2) to examine the antimicrobial selection in hospital and on discharge.
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Male fertility is determined by several factors one of which is essential sperm motility. A large number of drugs have a toxic influence on sperm motility
In the Kalgoorlie Otitis Media Research Project nasopharyngeal aspirates were collected from children up to seven times between the age of 1 week and 2 years. A total of 261 M. catarrhalis strains from 50 Aboriginal and 50 non-Aboriginal children were tested against 14 antibiotics using the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) agar dilution method.
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12 participants were lost to follow-up and 101 were excluded from the per-protocol analysis. In the per-protocol population (n=339), the lower bound of the CI for treatment with quadruple therapy was greater than the pre-established non-inferiority margin of -10% (95% CI 15·1-32·3; p<0·0001). In the intention-to-treat population (n=440), eradication rates were 80% (174 of 218 participants) in the quadruple therapy group versus 55% (123 of 222) in the standard therapy group (p<0·0001). Safety profiles for both treatments were similar; main adverse events were gastrointestinal and CNS disorders.
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The AXS 875/125 proportion has a remarkable in vitro and ex vivo activity against Ec urinary isolates.
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Beta-lactam antibiotics are the drugs most frequently involved in drug hypersensitivity reactions that are mediated by specific immunologic mechanisms. In addition to benzylpenicillin, several chemical structures belonging to 5 major subgroups can induce reactions. The most relevant structure is that of the amoxicillin molecule. Reactions belong to the 4 major mechanisms described by Coombs and Gell, whereby type IV reactions have recently been further subclassified. The most frequent reactions are type I, which are IgE mediated, and type IV, which are nonimmediate and T-cell dependent. IgE-specific antibodies may recognize the benzylpenicilloyl structure or another part of the molecule, such as the side chain, as antigenic determinants. Depending on specific recognition, subjects can be either cross-reactors or selective responders. A variety of entities exist in T-cell reactions, ranging from mild exanthema to life-threatening, severe reactions, such as Stevens-Johnson syndrome or toxic epidermal necrolysis. Diagnostic tests for IgE-mediated reactions can be done in vivo by testing skin with different penicillin determinants or in vitro by quantitating specific IgE antibodies. For nonimmediate reactions, there are also in vitro and in vivo tests, with variable degrees of sensitivity and specificity. The natural history of IgE-mediated reactions indicates that the count of specific IgE antibodies decreases over time and that results of diagnostic tests can become negative.