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Local infection remains a significant complication of tissue expansion. Subclinical infection of pockets with permanent prosthesis used in breast reconstruction has also been associated with capsular contracture around the implant. In an in vitro model, we used four groups of eighteen 50-ml tissue expanders, each containing Bactrim, Ancef, Nafcil, or saline only, in beakers containing fresh frozen plasma, placed in a rotary shaker for 48 hours. Inoculums of Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis were then selectively added to the medium external to the expanders in each group. The growth of such strains was found to be variably inhibited. We thus determined that antibiotics can diffuse through a tissue expander's Silastic membrane and establish an efficient bacteriostatic level in the surrounding fluid. This information could have potential clinical application in reducing infections associated with the use of expanders.
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Retrospective cohort study, single center, 2005-2009. Paper and electronic medical records were reviewed by one of several physicians. Subjects with initial SSTI were followed until the time of SSTI recurrence. Standard descriptive statistics were calculated to describe the characteristics of subjects who did and did not develop a recurrent SSTI. Kaplan-Meier methods were used to estimate the risk of recurrent SSTI. A Cox regression model was developed to identify predictors of SSTI recurrence.
The emergence of multidrug resistance (MDR) is a serious problem in treating shigellosis. There are limited existing data examining the change in the antimicrobial resistance profile of Shigella in Egypt. We previously reported that 58% of the Shigella isolates in Egypt were resistant to at least one member of the three different antimicrobial groups. This study was performed to determine the antimicrobial resistance profile of Shigella, determine their possible mechanisms of resistance, and compare their resistance profile to those reported 20 years ago.
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Forty-nine E. coli, K. pneumoniae, K. oxytoca and E. cloacae ESBL-producing isolates were studied. In antimicrobial susceptibility analyses, many of the isolates exhibited resistance to aminoglycosides, fluoroquinolones and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Gene amplification analysis and sequencing revealed that 75.5% (n=37) of the isolates harbored blaCTX-M-15 and 38.7% (n=19) harbored blaSHV-12. The non-ESBLs resistance genes detected were blaTEM-1, blaOXA-1, aac(6')-Ib,aac(6')-Ib-cr, tetA, sul-1, sul-2, qnrA, qnrB and catB-3. We found dfrA and aadA gene cassettes in the class 1 integron variable regions of the isolates, and the combination of dfrA17-aadA5 to be the most prevalent. All blaCTX-M-15 positive isolates also contained the ISEcp1 insertion element. Conjugation and transformation experiments indicated that 70.3% of the antibiotic resistance genes resided on plasmids. Through a PCR based replicon typing method, plasmids carrying the blaSHV-12 or blaCTX-M-15 genes were assigned to either the IncFII replicon type or, rarely, to the HI2 replicon type. All isolates were subtyped by the rep-PCR and ERIC-PCR methods.Phylogenetic grouping and virulence genotyping of the E. coli isolates revealed that most of them belonged to group A1. One isolate assigned to group B2 harbored blaCTX-M-15 and five virulence genes (traT, fyuA, iutA, iha and sfa) and was related to the O25b-ST131 clone.
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To report a case of necrotizing nocardial scleritis treated with surgical debridement and topical polyvinyl alcohol iodine (PAI) and antibiotics.
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This retrospective study of patients treated between 1992 and 1996 was undertaken as a preliminary step to identifying the main bacterial causes of diarrheal disease in Libreville, Gabon. A total 371 files showing positive stool cultures were analyzed. From an epidemiological standpoint, data showed that the high risk population was young people of both sexes. The incidence of diarrhea was correlated with climatic conditions with an endemic-epidemic pattern characterized by peak activity during the rainy season. In the vast majority of cases, the underlying etiology was gastroenteritis due to invasive organisms. The most commonly identified agents were salmonellae (46.6%) and Shigellae (44.2%). Treatment should focus on rehydration. Fluoro-quinolones were the most commonly indicated drugs for antimicrobial treatment but cotrimoxazole was often useful. In general, the prognosis of bacterial diarrhea is favorable provided that it is treated early and concurrent conditions are taken into account.
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Cefradine and co-trimoxazole pharmacokinetics were studied in a patient with peritonitis that complicated continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). Concentrations in the plasma reached after oral administration of 500 mg cefradine four times daily and 400/80 mg co-trimoxazole four times daily were for cefradine 100 micrograms/ml, for trimethoprim 15 micrograms/ml, and for sulfamethoxazole 100 micrograms/ml, respectively. In the dialysate concentrations were reached of 35-70 micrograms/ml cefradine, 2-5 micrograms/ml trimethoprim and 8-17 micrograms/ml sulfamethoxazole. The values for sulfamethoxazole are regarded too low to be clinically effective. Half-lives, protein binding values and CAPD clearances are presented. Low CAPD clearances were obtained during the night and high values during the day. The dosage yielded too high plasma trimethoprim concentrations, while sulfamethoxazole dialysate concentrations were too low. It seems questionable therefore whether co-trimoxazole can be used orally for the treatment of CAPD peritonitis.
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Escherichia coli is typically the causative organism in uncomplicated urinary tract infection (UTI). Resistance rates of E. coli to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX) are increasing, exceeding 10% in many communities. Guidelines recommend using alternative treatments in these areas. Providers must reevaluate policies to include considerations for E. coli resistance. A model was developed, with cases for illustration, to help organizations determine the resistance rate threshold, where TMP/SMX is no longer first-line therapy. Using published data, a 19% to 21% threshold was derived, supporting a previous report of 22%. The model can aid decision makers updating internal policies to conform with guidelines for the treatment of uncomplicated UTI and to improve care.
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In this study, 65 patients with generalized WG whose disease had entered remission with cyclophosphamide (CYC) and prednisone therapy were started on one of the following remission-maintenance regimens: MTX alone (group A; n = 22), T/S alone (group B; n = 24), MTX plus concomitant prednisone (group C; n = 11), and T/S plus concomitant prednisone (group D; n = 8). Clinical, radiographic, and seroimmunologic data were evaluated to assess the efficacy of the 4 regimens and to seek possible predictive factors concerning outcome in each group.
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This study concerns the incidence of side effects occurring in connection with the prescription of co-trimoxazole which, according to the observations of medical practitioners, were suspected of being drug related. It is based on reports from 260 doctors in the Nordbaden/Rheinlandpfalz area between 1981 and 1984, as well as on those from hospital doctors concerning 33,300 in-patients at the Department of Internal Medicine at the University Hospital of Heidelberg from 1980 to 1983. General practitioners' reports: Of 3,739 side effects reported over a three and a half year period, 180 were related to drugs containing co-trimoxazole. Side effects were 3.3 times as frequent with the "forte" dosage as compared to the 80 mg trimethoprim/400 mg sulfamethoxazole preparation. The most frequently cited unwanted reactions concerned the skin (n = 63, of which two were Quincke oedema and three were urticarious reactions) and the gastrointestinal tract (n = 52), as well as disturbance of well being (n = 30). Gastro-intestinal disturbances appeared to occur more frequently after a higher than after a lower dosage. Clinicians' reports: During the period of observation an average of 12.6% of all in-patients were treated with drugs containing co-trimoxazole. The total number of cases of side effects due to this drug amounted to 255. Serious reactions included: two anaphylactic reactions; two thrombocytopenias below 80,000/mm3; and two cases of Lyell's syndrome (one of which could not be confirmed beyond all doubt). Side effects occurred more often after i.v. than after oral application.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
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Chronic osteomyelitis has been a difficult problem for patients and the treating physicians. Appropriate antibiotic therapy is necessary to arrest osteomyelitis along with adequate surgical therapy. Factors involved in choosing the appropriate antibiotic(s) include infection type, infecting organism, sensitivity results, host factors, and antibiotic characteristics. Initially, antibiotics are chosen on the basis of the organisms that are suspected to be causing the infection. Once the infecting organism(s) is isolated and sensitivities are established, the initial antibiotic(s) may be modified. In selecting specific antibiotics for the treatment of osteomyelitis, the type of infection, current hospital sensitivity resistance patterns, and the risk of adverse reactions must be strongly appraised. Antibiotic classes used in the treatment of osteomyelitis include penicillins, beta-lactamase inhibitors, cephalosporins, other beta-lactams (aztreonam and imipenem), vancomycin, clindamycin, rifampin, aminoglycosides, fluoroquinolones, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, metronidazole, and new investigational agents including teicoplanin, quinupristin/dalfopristin, and oxazolidinones. Traditional treatments have used operative procedures followed by 4 to 6 weeks of parenteral antibiotics. Adjunctive therapy for treating chronic osteomyelitis may be achieved by using beads, spacers, or coated implants to deliver local antibiotic therapy and/or by using hyperbaric oxygen therapy (once per day for 90-120 minutes at two to three atmospheres at 100% oxygen).
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1300-bed tertiary academic medical center.
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Therapy of opportunistic infection in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome is frustrating, and there is no convincing evidence that aggressive treatment and/or prophylaxis other than for Pneumocystis infection can significantly prolong life. While much clinical effort is expended on treating sequential life-threatening infections, the overall course is usually progressively downhill. Thus, any real impact on the disease should be aimed at the causative viral agent, because it is destruction of a critical component of the immune system that predisposes to opportunistic infections.
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Examine the risk of infectious complications and hospital admissions after PNB in a European screening trial.
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Three cases diagnosed in a Pneumology Section are reported. None of them was affected by AIDS and all of them were initially diagnosed from bronchopneumonia. Empirical antibiotherapy was initiated and because of the unsatisfactory progress, bronchoscopy was performed in all cases and in one case a transthoracic puncture was made. Nocardia spp. was then isolated and this let to began with a specific treatment. All the patients progress satisfactorily in their respiratory infection.
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Men presenting for transrectal prostate biopsy (TPB) at the San Diego Veterans Affairs Medical Center underwent rectal culture immediately before TPB. Rectal swabs were streaked onto ciprofloxacin-supplemented (4 mg/L) MacConkey agar plates, identified, and susceptibility tested. The same swab was sent to the University of Washington for qPCR test (EST200) targeting 2 major MDR-ExPEC clonal groups--ST131 and ST69--that combined were expected to represent majority of fluoroquinolone (FQ)- and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole-resistant E coli. We calculate test characteristics including the area under the receiver operative curve (AUC).
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Prevention of urinary tract infections (UTT's) in female patients with postoperative indwelling catheter was investigated by applying a single dose of cotrimoxazole on the day of removal of the catheter, and the results compared to the morbidity from perioperative urinary tract infections in the years 1978-1979. Hence, it was the aim of this open study to establish whether the incidence of postoperative nosocomial UTT'S could be lowered and development of clinical symptoms prevented. Bacteriological problem and the diagnostic value of urinary sediment were also investigated. A single dose of Cotrimoxazole proved to be significantly effective in preventing or treating nosocomial UTT's. Urinary sediment in preventing or treating nosocomial UTT's. Urinary sediment is a simple, cheap and effective screening method for detecting uncomplicated urinary tract infections. However, interpretation of the sediment is doubtful if analysed in the early phase following gynaecological operations.
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Hyperkalemia is commonly seen in the elderly and is occasionally fatal. Inadvertently combining potassium sparing medications can result in profound hyperkalemia which may result in cardiac dysrhythmias, especially in the setting of chronic kidney disease. An 85 year-old woman on a drug regimen of sotalol, valsartan, spironolactone, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole presented to the emergency department with hypotension and bradycardia. Presumptive treatment for hyperkalemia was started based on her initial electrocardiogram. This diagnosis was later confirmed with a serum potassium value of 10.1 mmol/L. Following pharmacologic treatment, emergency hemodialysis was performed and the patient subsequently recovered. It is known that several drug classes can cause hyperkalemia, with elderly patients at a higher risk of developing this side effect. It is believed that this was a major contributor to the degree of hyperkalemia seen in this patient.
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To evaluate the role of prophylactic trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (co-trimoxazole) antibacterial prophylaxis in reducing morbidity and mortality in HIV-infected post-natal women in southern Africa.