Generic Combivir is used for treating HIV infection in combination with other medicines.
Other names for this medication:
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Also known as: Lamivudine\Zidovudine.
Generic Combivir is an antiviral combination. Lamivudine and Zidovudine are both nucleoside analogues that work together to slow the growth of HIV by blocking an enzyme needed by the virus to reproduce.
Generic Name of Generic Combivir is Lamivudine plus Zidovudine.
Combivir is also known as Lamivudine, Zidovudine, Duovir.
Brand name of Generic Combivir is Combivir.
Generic Combivir is available in tablets which should be taken orally.
Take Generic Combivir with or without food.
Continue to use Generic Combivir even if you feel well. Do not miss any doses.
Take Generic Combivir at the same time each day.
Do not stop taking it suddenly.
If you overdose Generic Combivir and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately.
Store between 2 and 30 degrees C (36 and 86 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. Keep the container tightly closed. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.
The most common side effects associated with Combivir are:
Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.
Be careful with Generic Combivir while you are pregnant or have nurseling. Generic Combivir can pass in breast milk and harm your baby.
Do not use Generic Combivir if you are allergic to Generic Combivir components.
Do not use Generic Combivir if you are taking stavudine, zalcitabine, or other medicines containing lamivudine or zidovudine.
Do not use Generic Combivir if you have severe kidney problems, decreased liver function, abnormal liver function tests, or high levels of lactic acid in the blood (lactic acidosis).
Be careful with Generic Combivir if you weigh less than 66 lbs (30 kg) .
Be careful with Generic Combivir if you have a history of liver problems (eg, abnormal liver function tests, hepatitis B infection) or lactic acidosis, kidney problems, a bone marrow disorder, pancreas problems, abnormal blood cell counts, or nerve or muscle problems.
Be careful with Generic Combivir if you are significantly overweight.
Be careful with Generic Combivir if you take interferon alfa or ribavirin because serious liver problems may occur; stavudine because its effectiveness may be decreased by Generic Combivir; clarithromycin, doxorubicin, rifampin, or zalcitabine because they may decrease Generic Combivir 's effectiveness; acetaminophen, ganciclovir, ibuprofen, methadone, probenecid, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, valproic acid, vancomycin, or zalcitabine because they may increase the risk of Generic Combivir 's side effects or toxic effects.
Do not stop taking it suddenly.
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Retrospective observational study.
Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor-containing regimens may be a valid alternative to protease inhibitor-containing regimens for initial antiretroviral therapy, but to date few studies comparing these two strategies have been performed.
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A province-wide standardized program of universal HIV counselling and offering of PEP to sexual assault survivors with frequent follow up was successfully implemented and feasible.
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Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has been advocated for the management of primary HIV-1 infection. We investigated the use of a nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-based regimen in this setting.
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Few data have described long-term outcomes for infants born to HIV-infected African women taking antiretroviral therapy (ART) in pregnancy. This is particularly true for World Health Organization (WHO)-recommended tenofovir-containing first-line regimens, which are increasingly used and known to cause renal and bone toxicities; concerns have been raised about potential toxicity in babies due to in utero tenofovir exposure.
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The Nairobi Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya.
It is not possible to draw conclusions on the clinical effectiveness of non-occupational PEP for HIV because of the limited evidence available. The review of cost-effectiveness suggests that non-occupational PEP may be cost-effective, especially in certain population subgroups; however, the assumptions made and data sources used in the cost-effectiveness studies mean that their results should be used with caution.
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To compare the lipid and metabolic effects, efficacy, and safety of twice-daily regimens of Trizivir (abacavir 300 mg/lamivudine 150 mg/zidovudine 300 mg triple nucleoside tablet; TZV), Combivir (lamivudine 150 mg/zidovudine 300 mg combination tablet; COM)+nelfinavir (NFV), and stavudine (d4 T)+lamivudine (3TC)+NFV.
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Eleven electronic databases were searched from inception to December 2007.
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Since its identification in 1985, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has challenged several aspects of health care delivery. Because HIV is a blood-borne infectious disease, from the early days of the epidemic, concern was raised about risks of occupational exposures and infections among health care workers. Despite the development of highly active antiretroviral therapy, which has effectively modulated HIV into a chronic disease in many settings, risks of occupational infection with 3 blood-borne pathogens remain in the health care workplace. Using the case of a house officer who has a needlestick during a resuscitation attempt, prevention of needlesticks including universal precautions and postexposure management of occupational HIV, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C exposures is discussed.
Patients were randomized 1 : 1 : 1 to TZV twice daily (n = 85), COM/NFV 1250 mg twice daily (n = 88), or d4T 40 mg+3TC 150 mg+NFV 1250 mg twice daily (n = 81) for 96 weeks. Treatments were compared using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) with regard to changes from baseline in fasting lipids in the total population and in sex and ethnic subgroups. The proportions of patients achieving HIV-1 RNA <50 and <400 copies/mL were compared using a 95% confidence interval (CI) on the difference between proportions.
Preliminary data suggest that a once-daily combination of lamivudine, didanosine and efavirenz is an effective alternative regimen for antiretroviral-naive HIV-1-infected patients. However, data from randomized trials comparing this combination versus standard first-line regimens are not available yet. In an observational study, we analyse the efficacy and tolerability of didanosine plus lamivudine and efavirenz versus zidovudine plus lamivudine and efavirenz in a cohort of therapy naive patients.
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The attenuation of cholangitis with regimens containing the reverse transcriptase inhibitors, tenofovir and emtricitabine, and the protease inhibitors, lopinavir and ritonavir, suggests that retroviral infection may play a role in the development of cholangitis in this model.
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The PEP literature was assessed to identify studies reporting safety and completion rates for children given PEP, and this information was complemented by safety and efficacy data for drugs used in antiretroviral therapy. The proportion of patients experiencing each outcome was calculated and data were pooled using random-effects meta-analysis.
To evaluate the effect of antiretroviral treatment on aminotransferase serum levels in treatment-naïve patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
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Selected studies were assessed, subjected to data extraction using a standard template and quality assessment using published criteria. Studies were synthesised using a narrative approach with full tabulation of results from all included studies.
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Two (3.8%) women in group-1 showed transmitted drug resistance and they continued to show this even at 6 weeks postpartum. One (2%) woman from group-1 showed a mutation after 6-8 weeks of prophylaxis. Among the samples collected between 26-65 weeks postpartum, 3/7 (43%) showed mutations and all these women belong to group-1. Women belonging to group-2 didn't show mutation prior to or following prophylaxis.
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3'-Azido-3'-deoxythymidine (AZT) is the most widely used and evaluated chemotherapeutic agent for the treatment of persons with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Antiviral therapy is essential for treatment and prevention of AIDS in adults and children infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV during pregnancy and labor. The studies described in this report were designed to determine possible long-term sequelae from AZT treatment, often used in combination with other antiviral drugs, such as lamivudine (3TC) and nevirapine (NVP) in preventing mother-to-child transmission of HIV. Male and female heterozygous F1 p53+/- mice were exposed to AZT, 3TC, NVP, or combinations of the chemicals in utero on gestation days (GD) 12 through 18, then administered the same chemical or combination of chemicals by gavage from postnatal day (PND) 1 through PND 28 and then observed until 45 weeks of age. Vehicle control mice received only an aqueous solution containing 0.2% methylcellulose and 0.1% Tween 80. Mice were dosed twice daily until PND 28. Genetic toxicology studies were conducted in mouse peripheral blood erythrocytes. The study compared three combination doses of AZT, 3TC and NVP (AZT/3TC/NVP-L, AZT/3TC/NVP-M, and AZT/3TC/NVP-H) with the vehicle controls, and compared the individual components with each other at the highest dose (AZT-H, 3TC-H, NVP-H, AZT/3TC-H and AZT/3TC/NVP-H). Because exposure to AZT/3TC/NVP-M and AZT/3TC/NVP-H reduced pup survival, additional litters were required to provide sufficient pups to load the 45-week study. 45-WEEK STUDY: In general, survival was relatively high once the pup exposure phase had been completed, with at least 75% of the mice surviving to terminal sacrifice in all groups. For males, survival was significantly greater in the AZT/3TC/NVP-L and AZT/3TC/NVP-M groups relative to the vehicle control group. There were no significant differences in survival between high dose groups of the constituent chemicals in either sex; however, survival of females in the AZT/3TC-H group was significantly less than that in the vehicle control group. Early deaths were predominantly associated with occurrences of malignant lymphoma, mammary gland tumors, and osteosarcomas. In the combination dose comparison, males and females dosed with the AZT/3TC/NVP-H combination had significantly decreased body weights compared to the vehicle control groups from PND 11 when individual monitoring began until 20 (males) or 11 (females) weeks. In addition, mean body weights for the male and female AZT/3TC/NVP-M groups were significantly less than those of the vehicle control groups until 14 weeks. In the high dose comparison, mean body weights of the male and female AZT-H groups were significantly less than those of the vehicle control groups during some of the early weeks of dosing. In male and female mice, absolute brain weights of the combination dose groups decreased with increasing dose and, except in low dose males, the absolute brain weights of the dosed groups were significantly less than those of the vehicle control groups. When the high doses of the constituent chemicals were compared, absolute brain weights of the male and female AZT-H and AZT/3TC/NVP-H groups were significantly less than those of the vehicle control groups. However, relative brain weights were not significantly altered. Relative liver weights of male combination dose groups followed a positive trend with dose. When the high dose groups were compared, increases in relative liver weights of male mice appeared to be associated with AZT exposure. In combination dose groups, the absolute heart weight of AZT/3TC/NVP-H females was significantly greater than that of the vehicle control group, and there was a positive trend in absolute heart weights. There was also a positive trend for relative heart weights in these combination dose groups, though no individual group relative weight was significantly greater than that of the vehicle control group. In females, absolute heart weight was also significantly increased in the AZT/3TC-H group relative to the vehicle control group. A small but statistically significant increase in serum alanine aminotransferase activity was observed in the male AZT/3TC/NVP-H group compared to the vehicle control group. In the combination dose comparison, the incidences of hepatocellular adenoma and hepatocellular adenoma or carcinoma (combined) in the liver of all groups of males dosed with AZT/3TC/NVP were significantly increased compared to the vehicle control group. In the high dose comparison, the incidences of hepatocellular adenoma in males in the AZT-H group and hepatocellular adenoma and hepatocellular adenoma or carcinoma (combined) in males in the AZT/3TC-H and AZT/3TC/NVP-H groups were significantly greater than those in the vehicle control group; the incidences of these lesions in the 3TC-H and NVP-H groups were significantly less than those in the AZT/3TC/NVP-H group. The incidences of malignant lymphoma in males administered AZT-H or AZT/3TC-H and in females administered AZT/3TC/NVP-M, AZT/3TC/NVP-H, NVP-H, or AZT/3TC-H were slightly greater than those in the vehicle control groups. The incidence of mammary gland adenoacanthoma or adenocarcinoma (combined) in females administered 3TC-H was slightly greater than that in the vehicle control group.
Single-dose nevirapine (sdNVP)-which prevents mother-to-child transmission of HIV-selects non-nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) resistance mutations in the majority of women and HIV-infected infants receiving it. This open-label, randomised trial examined the efficacy of short-course zidovudine (AZT) and lamivudine (3TC) with sdNVP in reducing NNRTI resistance in mothers, and as a secondary objective, in infants, in a setting where sdNVP was standard-of-care.
The recommended guidelines were adhered to for the majority of patients initiated on antiretrovirals at the UHWI. The treatment outcomes achieved at the UHWI were similar to those achieved in developed countries. This gives substantial evidence in support of international efforts to make antiretroviral therapy available in developing countries.
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