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Although airway and pulmonary vessel tone are regulated predominantly by cholinergic and adrenergic impulses, biologically active peptides such as calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) may significantly influence human smooth muscle tone in normal and pathophysiological states. In the present study, the expression of CGRP and its receptor CGRPR-1 and the biological effect of the peptide were investigated in human airways and pulmonary arteries. Immunohistochemistry revealed the presence of CGRP in human airway nerves and neuro-epithelial cells, whereas the receptor was found in epithelial cells and smooth muscle myocytes of the bronchi and in pulmonary artery endothelium. On precontracted bronchi (3-4 mm in diameter) alpha-CGRP (0.01-10 nM) caused a concentration-dependent contraction on epithelium-denuded bronchi, whereas no significant effect was recorded in bronchi with intact epithelium. In pulmonary arteries (2-6 mm in diameter), alpha-CGRP caused a concentration-dependent relaxation of endothelium intact and denuded vessels. Pre-treatment with indomethacin, but not with l-NAME, prevented the relaxation induced by alpha-CGRP in pulmonary arteries suggesting that prostaglandins but not nitric oxide (NO) are involved in the intracellular signal transduction pathway. The effects induced by alpha-CGRP in bronchi and vessels were prevented by application of the antagonist CGRP((8-37)). In summary, the present studies examined the biological function of CGRP in human airways and demonstrated a constrictory effect of CGRP only in epithelium-denuded airway smooth muscle indicating an alteration of CGRP airway effects in respiratory tract pathological states with damaged epithelium such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or bronchial asthma.
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GM-CSF is key to the development of inflammatory and arthritic pain, suggesting that pain alleviation could result from trials evaluating its role in inflammatory/autoimmune conditions.
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Regional differences in large equine pulmonary artery reactivity exist. It is not known if this heterogeneity extends into small vessels. The hypothesis that there is regional heterogeneity in small pulmonary artery and vein reactivity to sympathomimetics (phenylephrine and isoproterenol) and a parasympathomimetic (methacholine) was tested using wire myography on small vessels from caudodorsal (CD) and cranioventral (CV) lung of 12 horses [9 mares, 3 geldings, 8.67 ± 0.81 (age ± SE) yr, of various breeds that had never raced]. To study relaxation, vessels were precontracted with U46619 (10(-6) M). Methacholine mechanism of action was investigated using L-nitroarginine methylester (L-NAME, 100 μM) and indomethacin (10 μM). Phenylephrine did not contract any vessels. Isoproterenol relaxed CD arteries more than CV arteries (maximum relaxation 28.18% and 48.67%; Log IC50 ± SE -7.975 ± 0.1327 and -8.033 ± 0.1635 for CD and CV, respectively, P < 0.0001), but not veins. Methacholine caused contraction of CD arteries (maximum contraction 245.4%, Log EC50 ± SE -6.475 ± 0.3341), and relaxation of CV arteries (maximum relaxation 40.14%, Log IC50 ± SE -6.791 ± 0.1954) and all veins (maximum relaxation 50.62%, Log IC50 ± SE -6.932 ± 0.1986) in a nonregion-dependent manner. L-NAME (n = 8, P < 0.0001) and indomethacin (n = 7, P < 0.0001) inhibited methacholine-induced relaxation of CV arteries, whereas indomethacin augmented CD artery contraction (n = 8, P < 0.0001). Our data demonstrate significant regional heterogeneity in small blood vessel reactivity when comparing the CD to the CV region of the equine lung.
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Carbaboranes are increasingly studied as pharmacophores, particularly as replacements for aromatic systems. However, especially ortho-carbaborane is prone to degradation of the cluster, which hampers biological application. This study demonstrates that deboronation of the cluster may not only lead to a more active analogue, but can also improve the solubility and stability of a carbaborane-containing inhibitor. Notably, introduction of a nido-dicarbaborate cluster into the cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitor indomethacin results in remarkably increased inhibitory potency and selectivity for COX-2 relative to the respective phenyl analogue. The first crystal structure of a carbaborane-containing inhibitor bound to COX-2 further reveals a novel binding mode for the inhibitor that is strikingly different from that of indomethacin. These results indicate that nido-dicarbaborate is a promising pharmacophore that exhibits properties which are also highly beneficial for its introduction into other inhibitor classes.
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UI was 25.8 +/- 6.3 in group II, 10.20 +/- 2.3 in group III (p < 0.05), 21.60 +/- 2.8 in group IV, 13.40 +/- 2.4 in group V (p < 0.05) and 20.80 +/- 3.9 in group VI. pH values were 2.2 +/- 0.3 in group II, 3.4 +/- 0.9 in group III (p < 0.05), 2.6 +/- 0.8 in group IV, 2.9 +/- 0.7 in group V and 2.5 +/- 0.6 in group VI. The histopathological exam revealed: (i) typical lesions for ulcer in groups II, IV and VI, the most severe being in group II; (ii) only superficial non-hemorrhagic erosions in group V; (iii) small erosion areas alternating with large zones of normal mucosa in group III. The obtained data demonstrated different degrees of gastro-protective activity for the studied leukotriene receptor antagonists.
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The results suggest that the endothelium inhibits NCX operation via guanylate cyclase/NO. This is stronger than for other constrictors such as phenylephrine and may relate to concomitant NCX-stimulated NO release from the endothelium. This finding may be important where NCX operates in reverse mode, such as during ischaemia, and highlights a new mechanism whereby the endothelium modulates Ca2+ homoeostasis in vascular smooth muscle.
The purpose of this pilot study was to determine the efficacy of ketorolac tromethamine 0.4% for pain management in conjunction with rigid gas permeable contact lenses in keratoconus. Any potential side effects and complications of this application were examined.
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Anti-inflammatory activity of C. arborea methanol extract (CAME) was evaluated (100 and 200 mg/kg, p.o) using indomethacin (10 mg/kg, p.o) as the standard drug in Wistar albino rats. Inflammation was induced by injecting 0.1 ml carrageenan (1% w/v) into the left hind paw. The anti-inflammatory mechanism was studied by measuring malondialdehyde (MDA), C-reactive protein (CRP), nitric oxide (NO), myeloperoxidase (MPO), TNF-α, and IL-1β levels in both control and treated groups. A protocol has also been established to quantify quercetin and betulinic acid content in CAME using HPTLC fingerprint.
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Gastropathy was assessed by percentual damaged area determination in photographs of mice opened stomachs. Fasted mice treated with ethanol 99.9% (0.2 ml/animal, p.o.) were pre-treated with Chresta martii hydro alcoholic extract (HAE) (50, 100 or 200 mg/kg, p.o.), ranitidine (80 mg/kg, p.o.) or saline (5 ml/kg; p.o.) in different experimental sets, in which pharmacological tools (naloxone, indomethacin, N(ω)-Nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (L-NAME) or yohimbine) were added in order to clarify a possible action mechanism. Animals were sacrificed 30 min after ethanol challenge to stomach analysis. Determination of non-protein sulfhydryl groups and tissue hemoglobin, besides histological assessment (H&E) were taken to fully characterize the HAE gastro protective effect.
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Lung fibroblasts were incubated with IL-4 and IL-13 with or without Th1 cytokine interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) in vitro. Differentiation of lung fibroblasts to myofibroblasts was characterized by the expression of alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA) as well as a morphological and immunohistochemical analysis. Fibroblast proliferation stimulated by IL-4 and IL-13 was assessed with the MTT assay. We also investigated the effect of these cytokines on cyclooxygenase (COX) gene expression and PGE(2) production.
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The aim of this work was to establish models and to differentiate the kinetic release behavior of drug models from nanocapsules, nanoemulsion and nanospheres by physico-chemical characterization and release experiments. SAXS analysis showed that the polymer is organized in the nanocapsules, while in the nanospheres the sorbitan monostearate is organized and acts as an impurity of the poly(epsilon-caprolactone) suggesting that constituents in these nanocarriers are differently organized. Formulations presented particle sizes ranging from 178 to 297 nm, probe content from 0.981 to 0.997 mg/mL, pH values from 4.90 to 5.10 and zeta potential from -37.9 to -51.9 mV. The kinetic experiments showed that the nanostructures present similar behaviors when the probe is adsorbed on the nanocarriers (indomethacin-loaded formulations). However, when the probe is entrapped within the nanocarriers (indomethacin ethyl ester-loaded formulations), nanocapsules, nanospheres and nanoemulsion presented different kinetic behaviors. Mathematical modeling of the release profiles was conducted, showing that the presence of the polymer increases the half-lives of the burst phases (5.9, 4.4 and 2.7 min) while the presence of the oil increases the half-lives of the sustained phases (288.8, 87.7 and 147.5 min) for nanocapsules, nanospheres and nanoemulsion, respectively.
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Atopic dermatitis is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by severe pruritus, and cutaneous barrier disruption by scratching contributes to further aggravation of the condition. We have previously shown that indomethacin delayed recovery from the effects of cutaneous barrier disruption caused by mechanical scratching in mice.
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A significant decrease in iliac arterial blood flow, bladder wall blood flow, and bladder oxygen tension was found in the treated group. Bladder ischemia increased the frequency and amplitude of baseline spontaneous smooth muscle contractility. Ischemic tissues with urothelium (Uro+) demonstrated significant increases in the contractile response to electrical field stimulation (EFS) and carbachol relative to control Uro+ tissues. Urothelial removal increased smooth muscle contraction in the control tissues but had no significant effect in the ischemic/hypoxic tissues. Contraction of control tissues without urothelium (Uro-) was similar to contraction of ischemic Uro+ tissues. Contractions of ischemic Uro+ and control Uro- tissues were unchanged after treatment with the cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitor indomethacin, while they were significantly reduced by the 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) inhibitor NDGA. EIA showed no change in PGs release from the ischemic urothelium, but significant increase in PGF(2-alpha) and thromboxane A(2) release from the ischemic suburothelial tissue. Ischemia increased the release of LTB(4), LTC(4), and LTE(4) from both urothelium and suburothelial tissue.
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We conclude that cold storage induced apoptosis through an [arachidonic acid-14-3-3ζ-glycoprotein Ibα] complex, which released 14-3-3ζ from Bad in an arachidonic acid-dependent manner. Although arachidonic acid depletion reduced agonist-induced thromboxane A(2) formation and aggregation, arachidonic acid repletion restored these functions, opening ways to reduce apoptosis during storage without compromising hemostatic functions post-transfusion.
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Thirty-nine women were studied at caesarean delivery, of whom eight were re-evaluated 4-5 months later. In addition, eight volunteers were studied. Clearance in Group IP was higher compared to Groups LP and C (2.11 vs. 1.43 and 1.07 L/h·m(2) respectively, P<0.05). Volume of distribution was also increased in Group IP compared to Groups LP and C (0.24 vs. 0.16 and 0.17 L/kg respectively, P<0.05). No significant covariates of pharmacokinetic estimates, including gestational age, preterm vs. term, twin vs. singleton and maternal co-morbidity, were seen in Group IP.
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Renal colic is typically characterized by the sudden onset of severe pain radiating from the flank to the groin and its acute management in emergency departments essentially aims at rapid pain relief. Spasmofen(®) is a brand of Amriya Pharmaceutical Industries in the form of rectal suppositories containing ketoprofen 100 mg and hyoscine butylbromide 10 mg. This combination is intended for the rapid relief of severe colicky pain in the renal system, hepatobiliary system, or gastrointestinal tract. This trial aims to compare a single-dose of Spasmofen rectal suppository to a single intravenous (IV) ketorolac tromethamine 30 mg/2 mL dose in patients with acute renal colic.
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Data collected from 2 randomized controlled clinical trials assessing the efficacy of etoricoxib or indomethacin for 7 days in acute gout were used to assess SU levels during acute gouty attacks. Efficacy was similar with both agents, so both groups were combined for analysis.
Hemicrania continua is defined by its sensitivity to indomethacin but very few patients are able to discontinue the medication without headache recurrence. As the risks of chronic indomethacin use are substantial, alternative treatments are necessary to protect patient health. We are now able to suggest several radiofrequency ablation procedures as effective as indomethacin with long-term follow-up.
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Indomethacin down-regulated the expression of Bfl-1, WISP-1 and PCNA mRNA in vitro (9.53 +/- 0.15 vs 27.87 +/- 0.12, 7.37 +/- 0.58 vs 20.17 +/- 0.58, 5.17 +/- 0.06 vs 0.87 +/- 0.06). Indomethacin also down-regulated the expression of Bfl-1, WISP-1 and PCNA protein (40.01 +/- 1.61 vs 43.76 +/- 1.63, 22.50 +/- 1.17 vs 30.30 +/- 1.55, 17.69 +/- 1.18 vs 20.80 +/- 1.08).
In a cohort of VLBW neonates, those exposed to caffeine were less likely to experience AKI.
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The commercially processed M. oleifera was extracted using methanol as its solvent. Phytochemical analysis as well as the anti-oxidant properties of this supplement were also investigated. Acute toxicity was carried out in fasted mice. Carrageenan and histamine tests were used to assess anti-inflammatory effects in rats, while analgesic activities were assessed using the acetic acid-induced writhing test and formalin-induced paw lick test in mice. In the anti-oxidant tests, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, ferrous reducing activity power, 2,21-azinobis-(3-ethylbenthialozine)-6-sulphonic acid and total polyphenolic (TPP) assays were deployed at concentrations of 10 mg/mL and 20 mg/mL.