19 cases of vocal tremor were identified, of which 17 patients (89%) were female. The average age of vocal symptom onset was 64 (SD 8.0) and patients had been symptomatic an average of 6 years (SD 4) at their initial visit. 8 patients had IVT while 11 also had evidence of subtle head or limb tremor. 8 patients (42%) had a family history of ET, with vocal tremor specifically identified in 5 of those cases (26%). 11 patients (58%) noted transient tremor improvement after alcohol consumption. Primidone and propranolol were the most common medications prescribed to these patients prior to consultation. 7 patients were given a trial of 1 gm of sodium oxybate in the office as part of a clinical trial, with at least mild improvement in vocal tremor noted by qualitative assessment.
The intrapatient effect of starting (group A, n = 16), increasing (group B, n = 19), decreasing (group C, n = 23), and discontinuing (group D, n = 34) the phenothiazines (PHZs) thioridazine, chlorpromazine, or mesoridazine on serum phenytoin (PHT), phenobarbital (PB), and primidone (PRI) was studied at a constant antiepileptic drug regimen and between two consecutive steady-state concentration determinations in 92 institutionalized epileptic patients with psychiatric disorders. For PHZ initiation or dosage increase (groups A and B), serum PHT and PHT concentration-to-dose ratio (C/D) decreased by 44 (p less than 0.001) and 41.6% (p less than 0.001) in group A, and 32.9 (p less than 0.001) and 35.3% (p less than 0.005) in group B, respectively. For PHZ dosage decrease or discontinuation (groups C and D), serum PHT and C/D ratio increased by 54.8 (p less than 0.001) and 51.3% (p less than 0.01) in group C, and 71.2 (p less than 0.001) and 69.2% (p less than 0.001) in group D, respectively. The changes for PB were in the same direction, although to a lesser extent. No statistically significant differences were noted for PRI. For groups A and B, the clinical trend was for increase in number of seizures when PHZs were started or dosage increased. For groups C and D, a clear trend for PHT intoxication was evident when PHZ dosages were decreased or discontinued.
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An automated analytical method for the determination of felbamate in human plasma is described. Sample cleanup and preparation was performed by means of a Zymate II laboratory robot and consisted of a liquid-liquid extraction of felbamate and the internal standard, primidone, from human plasma to dichloromethane. The dichloromethane was evaporated and reconstituted in a phosphate buffer. Separation was performed by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography using a 5 microns Hypersil ODS column (150 x 4.6 mm) and a mobile phase consisting of a mixture of phosphate buffer (pH = 6.5, 0.015 M) and acetonitrile (79:21, v/v). Quantitation was performed by measurement of the UV absorbance at a wavelength of 210 nm. The lower limit of quantitation was 0.100 micrograms ml-1 using 200 microliters of plasma. The mean absolute analytical recovery of felbamate was 75.2% (n = 28). The recovery of the internal standard, primidone was 74.7% (n = 10). The within-day precision was below 3.8% at all concentration levels, except at the lower limit of quantitation (18.3%). The within-day accuracy varied between -3.7 and +7.4%. The between-day precision was below 5.0% at all concentration levels. The between-day accuracy of the method varied between -5.7 and +1.6%. The selectivity of the method towards several other anti-epileptic drugs has been demonstrated.
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Few studies have been published on the pharmacologic response to treatment of patients whose seizures begin after 40 years of age. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of chronic pharmacotherapy on the seizure control of such patients. We retrospectively studied the seizure frequency recorded during a 12-month period in a group of 94 outpatients whose seizure disorders began after 40 years of age (median age of seizure onset 56.5 years) and who had been treated with anticonvulsant medication for a median period of 6 years (range 18 months to 12 years). We assessed the relationship between the patients' seizure frequency during the last 12 months of treatment using (a) the present and previously prescribed pharmacologic regimens, (b) anticonvulsant blood levels of present regimen, (c) etiology and duration of seizure disorder, (d) age at onset of seizures, and (e) presence of electrographic (EEG) and neuroradiologic abnormalities. We only identified side effects occurring at blood levels within or below the drug's therapeutic range. Seventy-eight patients (83%) were seizure free during the last 12 months of treatment, 11 (11%) had rare seizures, and five (6%) had more than four seizures per year. Seizure frequency was not affected by duration and etiology of seizure disorder, age at onset of seizures, seizure type, neuroradiologic or electroencephalographic abnormalities, and present or previously prescribed pharmacologic regimens. Persistent side effects were reported in seven of 76 (9%) monotherapy regimens and in two of 12 (17%) polytherapy regimens. Our data suggest that seizures beginning after the age of 40 have a favorable prognosis after chronic pharmacotherapy.
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A rapid method for simultaneously determining the anticonvulsant drugs carbamazepine, ethosuximide, phenobarbitone, phenytoin, primidone, and valproic acid is described. Blank plus single-point calibration gives reliable quantitation from therapeutic to high fatal concentrations, except for ethosuximide, for which it gives semiquantitative results. Whole blood and liver tissue samples containing deuterated internal standards were extracted using Bond Elut Certify columns. Butyl derivatives were formed using n-iodobutane and TMAH under mild conditions and were extracted into ethyl acetate as a cleanup step. Recoveries were greater than 50%, except for valproic acid (42%). Sample preparation time was less than 2 h, and the GC run time was less than 20 min per injection. At least two ion pairs formed by electron impact ionization were monitored for each drug. Intraday CVs were less than 6.28% (4.20%) and interday CVs less than 14.1% (for midtherapeutic concentrations in blood [liver], except for ethosuximide). Linearity was observed from subtherapeutic to high fatal levels for all drugs. This method has been applied to forensic cases and has significantly reduced analytical time while improving case-work quality. Results of a case study involving anticonvulsant drugs are given.
A short discussion of known facts on iatrogenic autoallergic dermatoses of the pemphigus and lupus erythematosus type followed by the clinical, histological and immunological data of a subepidermal autoallergic bullous dermatosis in two children after anticonvulsive treatment with primidon.
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Simultaneous nitrification/denitrification and trace organic contaminant (TrOC) removal during wastewater treatment by an integrated anoxic-aerobic MBR was examined. A set of 30 compounds was selected to represent TrOCs that occur ubiquitously in domestic wastewater. The system achieved over 95% total organic carbon (TOC) and over 80% total nitrogen (TN) removal. In addition, 21 of the 30 TrOCs investigated here were removed by over 90%. Low oxidation reduction potential (i.e., anoxic/anaerobic) regimes were conducive to moderate to high (50% to 90%) removal of nine TrOCs. These included four pharmaceuticals and personal care products (primidone, metronidazole, triclosan, and amitriptyline), one steroid hormone (17β-estradiol-17-acetate), one industrial chemical (4-tert-octylphenol) and all three selected UV filters (benzophenone, oxybenzone, and octocrylene). Internal recirculation between the anoxic and aerobic bioreactors was essential for anoxic removal of remaining TrOCs. A major role of the aerobic MBR for TOC, TN, and TrOC removal was observed.
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To develop a solid phase, competitive enzyme immunoassay for the measurement of serum phenytoin.
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Sera of epileptic patients which were routinely examined by gas chromatography (GC) were also analysed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Three basic methods for the pretreatment of samples for HPLC analysis were compared: protein precipitation by adding acetonitrile to the serum, direct serum extraction using ethylacetate, and partitioning of serum and buffer solution over a stationary phase and extraction with dichloromethane/2-propanol. The analytical performance and practicability of the three methods were tested under routine conditions. The following anti-epileptic drugs and metabolites were used in the comparison of HPLC with GC: ethosuximide, primidone, phenobarbital, phenytoin, carbamazepine, N-desmethylmethsuximide, and phenylethylmalonediamide.
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In recent studies primary bowing tremor has been described; however, tremor frequency has never been quantitatively assessed. In addition to describing phenomenological aspects of tremor we thus aimed at assessing tremor frequency. Our hypothesis was that primary bowing tremor is similar to the phenomenological aspects and frequency of primary writing tremor.
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Several interactions involving antiepileptic drugs are based on changes in the rate of their metabolism and elimination, with concomitant rise or fall of plasma levels. Thus, phenobarbital generally induces the production of the DPH metabolizing enzyme, but its presence inhibits the action of that enzyme. The net result depends upon the balance between these factors in individual patients. Either a decline, a rise, or no change of the DPH plasma level may occur after the onset of administration of phenobarbital. Drugs that may cause elevation of the DPH plasma level include disulfiram, sulthiame, bishydroxycoumarin, chloramphenicol, phenyramidol, benzodiazepines, sulfamethizole, and isoniazid. Isoniazid has been shown experimentally to be a strong inhibitor of DPH metabolism. The extent of DPH plasma level elevation by INH is related to the genetic make-up of individual patients. The highest and frequently toxic DPH plasma levels were seen in very slow INH inactivators. The incidence of clinically significant interactions is not high with most drug combinations; marked changes of antiepileptic drug levels occur only in apparently susceptible individuals. The effects of interactions are not necessarily detrimental; elevation of a low ineffective level may improve seizure control. A rise to a toxic level range requires reduction of the dose of primary drug or elimination of interfering drugs. Monitoring the blood levels of anti-epileptic drugs provides the best means to anticipate interactions and to regulate the doses when multiple medications have to be used.
Detection of the anticonvulsants carbamazepine, clonazepam, diazepam, ethosuximide, mephenytoin, mesuximide, methylphenobarbital, phenobarbital, phenytoin, primidone, propylhexedrine, sultiame, trimethadion and their metabolites in urine is described. The method presented is integrated in a general screening procedure (general unknown analysis) for several groups of drugs, detecting several hundred drugs and over 1000 metabolites. It includes cleavage of conjugates by acid hydrolysis, isolation by liquid-liquid extraction, derivatization by acetylation, separation by capillary gas chromatography and identification by computerized mass spectrometry. Using mass chromatography with the selective ions m/z 58, 104, 113, 117, 165, 193, 204 and 246, the possible presence of anti-convulsants and/or their metabolites was indicated. The identity of positive signals in the reconstructed mass chromatograms was confirmed by a visual or computerized comparison of the stored full mass spectra with the reference spectra. The sample preparation, mass chromatograms, reference mass spectra and gas chromatographic retention indices are documented.
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We report a 15-year-old female with stimulus-induced drop episodes occurring many times a day that resulted in failure to perform her daily activities. Because her SIDEs were misdiagnosed as atonic seizures, she was treated with several antiepileptic drugs, including valproic acid, levetiracetam, lamotrigine, primidone, carbamazepine, and clobazam.
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Pharmacological treatment of older subjects may mimic glucose metabolism and clinical symptoms of Alzheimer's disease. In the present case both, imaging and clinical findings, reversed to normal on change of treatment. Amyloid PET is a helpful tool to additionally rule out underlying Alzheimer's disease in situations of clinical doubt even if clinical or other imaging findings are suggestive of Alzheimer's disease.
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In primidon-treated patients there are significantly decreased serum concentrations of total and free thyroxin, protein bound iodine and base line serum TSH values. In primidon-treated children T3-resin test values, concentration of thyroxin-binding protein and total cholesterol are identical to those of the control group. Degree of diminution in serum concentration of protein bound iodine, total and free thyroxin and base line TSH was independant of the primidon dose per day. Probably the demonstrated alteration in the thyroid function tests studied, is mainly caused by phenobarbital, the major metabolite of primidon and not directly by unmetabolized primidon. It is suggested that the high protein-binding capacity of phenobarbital results in a competitive displacement of protein bound thyroxin comparable to that of DPH. Phenobarbital is know to be a stimulator of the drug metabolizing enzyme system in the liver. This effect may be the cause of an increased turnover of T4 which results in a decreased serum concentration of total and free T4 at last. It seems possible that there is a balance in serum concentration of thyroid hormones on a lower level. Normal euthyroid state may be presumed, if T4-secretion raises, but there is no clue for an increased pituarity response. In contrast to the normal group in primidon-treated children the base line serum TSH values are decreased. It is supposed that another effect of primidon is responsible for this fact. There may be an influence of primidon treatment on hypothalamic pituarity axis. Our findings do not indicate clearly a hypothyroid state in primidon-treated patients; further investigations should give an answer to the guestion, if side effects as tiredness, decreased impetus and constipation are not partly caused by alterations in thyroid hormone system.
The evidence for the efficacy of anticonvulsant drugs in the control of seizures during alcohol withdrawal is examined. The literature on the use of anticonvulsants to control anxiety, irritability, tension, and other symptoms of abstinence syndrome is reviewed. The data on benzodiazepines, phenobarbital, hydroxyzine, and neuroleptics are discussed briefly. There is no evidence to support the routine use of phenytoin for seizure prophylaxis in detoxication. However, phenytoin may be valuable in patients at a high risk for seizures, such as skid-row alcoholics. Only one retrospective study has been done on primidone; it claimed primidone was an efficacious adjuvant. Carbamazepine and valproic acid may be useful in the treatment of anxiety, dysphoric mood, somatization, and other symptoms of abstinence syndrome, as well as for seizure prophylaxis. The benzodiazepines, diazepam and chlordiazepoxide, are recognized as primary therapeutic agents in the detoxication of alcoholic patients. The major difficulty with the use of phenobarbital is that it cannot be used over as wide a range as the benzodiazepines. Hydroxyzine has been shown to be inferior to chlorazepate dipotassium. Most neuroleptics appear to be inappropriate for detoxication because they lower the seizure threshold; however, haloperidol has been found efficacious in acutely abstinent alcoholics. Carbamazepine, valproic acid, primidone, and phenobarbital should be tested against standard drugs such as chlordiazepoxide and diazepam in the detoxication of alcoholic patients.
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The frequency of epileptic seizures was observed in a controlled therapeutic trial on 23 epileptic inpatients before and after treatment with vitamin D(2) or placebo in addition to anticonvulsant drugs. The number of seizures was reduced during treatment with vitamin D(2) but not with placebo. The effect was unrelated to changes in serum calcium or magnesium. The results may support the concept that epileptics should be treated prophylactically with vitamin D.
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We reported a 33-year-old man with Lennox syndrome of 26 years' duration associated with unusual symptom complexes such as severe cerebellar ataxia and dysarthria, and peripheral neuropathy. His convulsive disorder was very intractable despite multiple anticonvulsants including phenytoin (PHT), phenobarbital (PB), primidone (PRM), valproate and so on. At the age of 25 he was no longer able to walk without help. PHT blood levels were kept almost within the therapeutic range, while PB blood levels tended to be greater than the therapeutic range. Needle EMG study revealed denervation pattern. Motor conduction velocity of the peroneal nerve was 25.2 m/s and sensory conduction velocity of the sural nerve could not be elicited. Brain CT and MRI showed the marked cerebellar atrophy predominant in the vermis. To our knowledge there were no previously reported cases of Lennox syndrome associated with such cerebellar dysfunctions and peripheral neuropathy. From the clinical course and laboratory findings, metabolic disorders and degenerative diseases were ruled out. We consider his cerebellar symptoms and peripheral neuropathy could be attributable to the long-term use of multiple anticonvulsants, i.e. PHT in combination with PB and PRM. These symptoms seem to be irreversible, because our patient's condition did not change after PHT and PB dose reduction, and discontinuation of PRM.
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We included 50 studies, with 31 contributing to meta-analysis. Study quality varied, and given the observational design, all were at high risk of certain biases. However, biases were balanced across the AEDs investigated and we believe that the results are not explained by these biases.Children exposed to carbamazepine (CBZ) were at a higher risk of malformation than children born to women without epilepsy (N = 1367 vs 2146, risk ratio (RR) 2.01, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.20 to 3.36) and women with untreated epilepsy (N = 3058 vs 1287, RR 1.50, 95% CI 1.03 to 2.19). Children exposed to phenobarbital (PB) were at a higher risk of malformation than children born to women without epilepsy (N = 345 vs 1591, RR 2.84, 95% CI 1.57 to 5.13). Children exposed to phenytoin (PHT) were at an increased risk of malformation compared with children born to women without epilepsy (N = 477 vs 987, RR 2.38, 95% CI 1.12 to 5.03) and to women with untreated epilepsy (N = 640 vs 1256, RR 2.40, 95% CI 1.42 to 4.08). Children exposed to topiramate (TPM) were at an increased risk of malformation compared with children born to women without epilepsy (N = 359 vs 442, RR 3.69, 95% CI 1.36 to 10.07). The children exposed to valproate (VPA) were at a higher risk of malformation compared with children born to women without epilepsy (N = 467 vs 1936, RR 5.69, 95% CI 3.33 to 9.73) and to women with untreated epilepsy (N = 1923 vs 1259, RR 3.13, 95% CI 2.16 to 4.54). There was no increased risk for major malformation for lamotrigine (LTG). Gabapentin (GBP), levetiracetam (LEV), oxcarbazepine (OXC), primidone (PRM) or zonisamide (ZNS) were not associated with an increased risk, however, there were substantially fewer data for these medications.For AED comparisons, children exposed to VPA had the greatest risk of malformation (10.93%, 95% CI 8.91 to 13.13). Children exposed to VPA were at an increased risk of malformation compared with children exposed to CBZ (N = 2529 vs 4549, RR 2.44, 95% CI 2.00 to 2.94), GBP (N = 1814 vs 190, RR 6.21, 95% CI 1.91 to 20.23), LEV (N = 1814 vs 817, RR 5.82, 95% CI 3.13 to 10.81), LTG (N = 2021 vs 4164, RR 3.56, 95% CI 2.77 to 4.58), TPM (N = 1814 vs 473, RR 2.35, 95% CI 1.40 to 3.95), OXC (N = 676 vs 238, RR 3.71, 95% CI 1.65 to 8.33), PB (N = 1137 vs 626, RR 1.59, 95% CI 1.11 to 2.29, PHT (N = 2319 vs 1137, RR 2.00, 95% CI 1.48 to 2.71) or ZNS (N = 323 vs 90, RR 17.13, 95% CI 1.06 to 277.48). Children exposed to CBZ were at a higher risk of malformation than those exposed to LEV (N = 3051 vs 817, RR 1.84, 95% CI 1.03 to 3.29) and children exposed to LTG (N = 3385 vs 4164, RR 1.34, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.76). Children exposed to PB were at a higher risk of malformation compared with children exposed to GBP (N = 204 vs 159, RR 8.33, 95% CI 1.04 to 50.00), LEV (N = 204 vs 513, RR 2.33, 95% CI 1.04 to 5.00) or LTG (N = 282 vs 1959, RR 3.13, 95% CI 1.64 to 5.88). Children exposed to PHT had a higher risk of malformation than children exposed to LTG (N = 624 vs 4082, RR 1.89, 95% CI 1.19 to 2.94) or to LEV (N = 566 vs 817, RR 2.04, 95% CI 1.09 to 3.85); however, the comparison to LEV was not significant in the random-effects model. Children exposed to TPM were at a higher risk of malformation than children exposed to LEV (N = 473 vs 817, RR 2.00, 95% CI 1.03 to 3.85) or LTG (N = 473 vs 3975, RR 1.79, 95% CI 1.06 to 2.94). There were no other significant differences, or comparisons were limited to a single study.We found significantly higher rates of specific malformations associating PB exposure with cardiac malformations and VPA exposure with neural tube, cardiac, oro-facial/craniofacial, and skeletal and limb malformations in comparison to other AEDs. Dose of exposure mediated the risk of malformation following VPA exposure; a potential dose-response association for the other AEDs remained less clear.
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Primidone and phenobarbital (each 85 nmoles/ml were separately perfused through the isolated brain of the rat. After 5 min of perfusion similar amounts of primidone and phenobarbital were taken up into the brain; for both drugs the concentration ratio between brain and perfusion medium was about 0.2. However, after 2 hr of perfusion the mean concentration ratio for primidone was about 0.55; for phenobarbital it was about 0.9 thus indicating a better uptake of phenobarbital. In two regions (hypophysis, mesencephalon) the concentration of phenobarbital was significantly higher than in perfusion medium. During 2 hr of perfusion of primidone, substantial quantities of phenobarbital and PEMA were formed amounting to 1400 pmoles for each metabolite. The highest concentration of the metabolites was found in septum, hypothalamus, hypophysis and mesencephalon. The in situ metabolism of primidone in the intact brain was demonstrated for the first time.