Nonhormonal drugs for contraception in men may have advantages over hormonal methods. The nonhormonal methods can have more rapid onset and less interference with androgen-dependent functions. This systematic review summarizes the clinical studies evaluating nonhormonal drugs administered to men for contraception. Relevant clinical results were found for gossypol, which is derived from the cotton plant, and for extracts of Tripterygium, a plant used in Chinese traditional medicine. Randomized, controlled trials were available on the efficacy of gossypol and on the effect of gossypol on potassium levels. Gossypol had problems with low efficacy and toxicity. For Tripterygium, 2 observational studies described men who were treated for rheumatoid arthritis. Although sperm density was lower among those taking Tripterygium, later reports indicated some toxicity. Nonclinical research continues on isolates of Tripterygium. No clinical studies for contraception in men were found for nonhormonal vaccines or neem, which is also a plant used for medicinal purposes. Clinical trials studied injecting styrene maleic anhydride into the vas deferens, but no comparative data were provided. At this time, no safe and effective nonhormonal drug is available for contraception in men.
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Traditional herbal medicine is a global phenomenon especially in the resource poor economy where only the very rich can access orthodox care. These herbal products are associated with complications such as acute renal failure and liver damage with a high incidence of mortalities and morbidities. Acute renal failure from the use of herbal remedies is said to account for about 30-35% of all cases of acute renal failure in Africa. Most of the herbal medications are not usually identified, but some common preparation often used in Nigeria includes "holy water" green water leaves, bark of Mangifera indica (mango), shoot of Anacardium occidentale (cashew), Carica papaya (paw-paw) leaves, lime water, Solanum erianthum (Potato tree), and Azadirachta indica (Neem) trees. We report a rare case of a young man who developed acute renal failure two days after ingestion of Chinese herb for "body cleansing" and general wellbeing. He had 4 sessions of haemodialysis and recovered kidney function fully after 18 days of admission.
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We conducted a study to determine the laboratory and field efficacy of neem oil towards anopheline larvae. No difference in LC50 was observed between laboratory and field strains for temephos, chlorpyriphos-methyl/fenitrothion and neem oil. No difference in susceptibility was found after 3 months of application every 2 weeks. Water treated with a single application of traditional larvicides was free of larvae after 4 weeks; neem oil-treated water, however, was free after 2 weeks but not at 4 weeks. Application of chlorpyriphos-methyl/fenitrothion and neem oil every 2 weeks for 7 rounds resulted in dramatic reduction in larval density with no statistically significant differences. An adult survey after larviciding also showed no significant difference. The efficacy of crude neem oil appears to be below that of conventional larvicides.
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Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is the most common adult leukemia and is currently incurable. To expand the therapeutic armamentarium, we investigated neem leaf extract (NLE) after a patient with CLL demonstrated disease regression upon taking oral NLE. NLE-mediated apoptosis was examined in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from 41 patients with CLL. NLE induced a dose-dependent reduction in CLL cell viability with significant apoptosis observed at 0.06% (w/v) by 24 h. Annexin-V staining and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP-1) and caspase 3 cleavage were observed after NLE treatment. However, a pan-caspase inhibitor only partially blocked NLE-mediated cell death. NLE also caused loss of mitochondrial outer membrane permeability and nuclear translocation of apoptosis-inducing factor. Furthermore, NLE treatment resulted in LC3-I cleavage. Biochemical analyses revealed that NLE also inhibits Bcl-2 and p53 proteins. In summary, NLE exhibits anti-leukemic properties in patient primary CLL cells and demonstrates clinical efficacy, warranting further investigation as a potential therapy for CLL.
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Six main mosquito habitat types namely artificial ponds, abandoned fish ponds, active fish ponds, open drains, temporary pools and swamps were found in Nyabondo. Early anopheline instars were mainly recovered from temporary pools, artificial ponds and abandoned fish ponds. The mosquitoes collected were Anopheles gambiae sensu lato (35%), An. coustani (46%) and Culex spp (19%). Both early and late instar larvae of anopheline and culicine mosquitoes were more abundant in the controls than in the Bti and neem treated habitats. Within treated habitats, early instar anopheline mosquitoes were recovered more from habitats provided with neem and fish compared to Bti treated habitats. All treated habitats recorded higher numbers of early instar larvae than late instars or pupae, indicating that gravid female mosquitoes still oviposited within treated habitats.
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Randomized, double blind clinical trial was designed. Thirty first year dental students volunteered to participate in the study. Neem containing tooth paste was used as an intervention. Clinical examination was carried out using Silness and Loe plaque index (PI) and Loe and Silness gingival index (GI). Independent t-test and paired t-test was used for the intergroup and the intragroup comparison.
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In this study plant pathogenic fungi Alternaria solani, Fusarium oxysporum, Rhizoctonia solani and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum were chosen to study the effect of ethanolic, hexane and methanolic extracts of neem seeds and leaves. Antifungal effects of neem leave and seed extracts obtained by ethanol, hexane and ptrolium ether were examined separately in vitro against Fusarium oxysporum, Rhizoctonia solani, Alternaria solani and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Results indicated that seeds and leaves extracts could cause growth inhibition of tested fungi, although the rate of inhibition of tested fungi varied with different extracts and concentrations. But all these extracts and concentrations of extract inhibited the growth of pathogenic fungi at a significant level. Azadirachtin, nimonol and expoxyazdirodione were detected from neem extract by using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). We can conclude that neem leave and seed extracts were effective as antifungal against all tested fungi but F. oxysporum and R. solani were the most sensitive fungi.
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Myrrh extract showed inhibition of E.faecalis equal to that of 2% CHX followed by Neem, Liquorice and Saline.
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Bada Gokhru (Pedalium murex L.) is perhaps the most useful traditional medicinal plant in India. Each part of the neem tree has some medicinal property and is thus commercially exploitable. During the last five decades, apart from the chemistry of the Pedalium murex compounds, considerable progress has been achieved regarding the biological activity and medicinal applications of this plant. It is now considered as a valuable source of unique natural products for development of medicines against various diseases and also for the development of industrial products. This review gives a bird's eye view mainly on the biological activities of some of this compounds isolated, pharmacological actions of the extracts, clinical studies and plausible medicinal applications of gokharu along with their safety evaluation.
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The Azadirachta indica (neem) tree is a source of a wide number of natural products, including the potent biopesticide azadirachtin. In spite of its widespread applications in agriculture and medicine, the molecular aspects of the biosynthesis of neem terpenoids remain largely unexplored. The current report describes the draft genome and four transcriptomes of A. indica and attempts to contextualise the sequence information in terms of its molecular phylogeny, transcript expression and terpenoid biosynthesis pathways. A. indica is the first member of the family Meliaceae to be sequenced using next generation sequencing approach.
We report an unusual case of neem oil poisoning in a previously normal 5 year old child. The child presented with refractory seizures and was having metabolic acidosis. Late neurological sequelae in the form of auditory and visual disturbances, and ataxia were present.
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This review described the physiological and biochemical effects of various secondary metabolites from Meliaceae against major Lepidopteran insect pest including, Noctuidae and Pyralidae. The biochemical effect of major Meliaceae secondary metabolites were discussed more in this review. Several enzymes based on food materials have critical roles in nutritional indices (food utilization) of the insect pest population. Several research work has been referred and the effect of Meliaceae secondary metabolites on feeding parameters of insects by demonstrating food consumption, approximate digestibility of consumed food, efficiency of converting the ingested food to body substance, efficiency of converting digested food to body substance and consumption index was reviewed in detail. Further how the digestive enzymes including a-Amylases, α and β-glucosidases (EC 18.104.22.168), lipases (EC 3.1.1) Proteases, serine, cysteine, and aspartic proteinases affected by the Meliaceae secondary metabolites was reviewed. Further effect of Meliaceae secondary metabolites on detoxifying enzymes have been found to react against botanical insecticides including general esterases (EST), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and phosphatases was reviewed. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP, E.C.22.214.171.124) and acid phosphatase (ACP, E.C.126.96.36.199) are hydrolytic enzymes, which hydrolyze phosphomonoesters under alkaline or acid conditions, respectively. These enzymes were affected by the secondary metabolites treatment. The detailed mechanism of action was further explained in this review. Acethylcholine esterase (AChE) is a key enzyme that terminates nerve impulses by catalyzing the hydrolysis of neurotransmitter, acetylcholine, in the nervous system of various organisms. How the AChE activity was altered by the Meliaceae secondary metabolites reviewed in detail.
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Effect of oral administration of crude aqueous neem extract on serum testosterone and other blood constituents was studied in the male Wistar rats for 10 weeks. The neem treatment resulted in significant decreases (p < 0.01) in total testosterone, total bilirubin and K+ in serum. There were also increases (p < 0.05) in packed cell volume, mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration, red blood cell, white blood cell and lymphocyte counts without showing any cytotoxic effects in the body.
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Chewing sticks (Miswak) is most commonly used int he Middle East and Indian Subcontinent Salvadora persica (Arak) and Azadirachta indica (Neem) are commonly used as oral hygiene tools in different parts of the world, Several studies have demonstrated the anti-plaque anticarious and antibacterial effect of these sticks. The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of antimicrobial activity of Neem and Arak chewing stick's aqueous extracts at various concentrations. The microbial inhibition was measured using blood agar and ditch plate method up to 48 hous. The pH of Neem extract was 6.1 and of Arak was 4.9 Data suggested that both chewing stick extracts are effective at 50% concentration on strept mutans and Strept faecalis. Arak extract was more effective at lower concentrations for Strept faecalis. The effect may be due to the difference of their chemical composition and variability in their PH. Further research is needed to extrapolate other plants used for oral hygiene. Chewing sticks are recommended as oral hygiene tools for health promotion in developing countries.
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The acquisition of clinical knowledge is based on interaction between analysis and synthesis. Systematic reviews provide the highest form of synthetic knowledge acquisition in terms of achieving internal validity of results. In that capacity it informs the analytic knowledge of the clinician but does not replace it.
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A quantitative ethnobotanical approach to antimalarial drug discovery led to the identification of Lansium domesticum Corr. Ser. (Meliaceae) as an important antimalarial used by Kenyah Dyak healers in Indonesian Borneo. Triterpenoid lansiolides with antimalarial activity were isolated from the bark and shown to have activity in both in vitro bioassays with Plasmodium falciparum, and in mice infected with P. berghei. A survey of African and tropical American Meliaceae led to further development of the limonoid gedunin from the traditionally used medicinal plants, tropical cedar, Cedrela odorata L., and neem, Azadirachta indica A. Juss. Gedunin has significant in vitro activity but initially showed poor in vivo activity. In vivo activity was improved by (1) incorporation into an easy to absorb suspension, (2) preparation of a more stable compound, 7-methoxygedunin; and (3) synergism with dillapiol, a cytochrome P450 3A4 inhibitor. The results show the potential for both antimalarial drug and phytomedicine development from traditionally used plants.
Twenty percent of CC2 in hydroxypropyl cellulose is better with respect to stability, efficacy and ease of decontamination. CC2 is also a safe chemical.
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All patients with CM admitted or referred to the Dermatology Unit at the General Hospital, Kalutara, over 18 months starting from July 1997, and all patients with CM from the orthopedic and surgical wards of the National Hospital of Sri Lanka in Colombo over 6 months from July 1997, were studied. Details of the history and examination were recorded on specially designed forms. Maggots extracted were identified at the Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Colombo. The modalities of treatment employed in the patients were recorded. In the Department of Parasitology, a colony of Chrysomya megacephala was maintained. Homogenized leaf extracts of Azadirachta indica (neem) and Pongamia pinnata (Indian beech) and mineral turpentine (active ingredient--low aromatic white spirits) were tested for efficacy in killing C. megacephala larvae in vitro. Leaf extracts were not used directly on patients.