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Herbal/supplement use is the fourth most common cause of drug-induced AHN requiring LT, albeit an underestimation of the problem. Detailed questioning of patients and their support systems regarding herbal/supplement use and better reporting are imperative to further define this problem and identify products that have the potential to lead to liver failure.
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The antioxidative activity of NAC as of other thiols can be attributed to its fast reactions with OH, NO2, CO3(-) and thiyl radicals as well as to restitution of impaired targets in vital cellular components. NAC reacts relatively slowly with superoxide, hydrogen-peroxide and peroxynitrite, which cast some doubt on the importance of these reactions under physiological conditions. The uniqueness of NAC is most probably due to efficient reduction of disulfide bonds in proteins thus altering their structures and disrupting their ligand bonding, competition with larger reducing molecules in sterically less accessible spaces, and serving as a precursor of cysteine for GSH synthesis.
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Both naproxen and acetaminophen can affect anti-hypertensive therapy with ramipril, valsartan or aliskiren with a different extent. When acetaminophen is chosen for OA management in subjects with hypertension, patients should be evaluated as carefully as when traditional NSAIDs are given.
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Minimally invasive surgery (MIS) has been associated with diminished postoperative pain and analgesia requirements. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the use of analgesia in the post-operative period following robotic surgery for endometrial cancer.
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The study was carried out on 150 patients scheduled for either partial or radical mastectomy with axillary dissection. They were randomized in a double-blinded manner to receive, extended release Venlafaxine 37.5 mg/d, gabapentin 300 mg/d, or placebo for 10 days starting the night before operation. Pain scores were recorded at rest and movement (visual analog scale) at 4, 12, and 24 hours on the first day postoperatively, daily from the second to tenth day postoperatively and visual analog scale in addition to pain character 6 months later. Analgesic requirements were compared between the 3 groups.
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Despite initial divergence in celecoxib use between Queensland and Australia, the use of ns-NSAIDs, COX-2 inhibitors and paracetamol overall, in concession beneficiaries, was comparable in Australia and Queensland.
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At the end of tonsillectomy, 2 swabs soaked in either 1% ropivacaine or saline were packed into the tonsillar beds for 5 minutes. We used ibuprofen and a combination of acetaminophen (500 mg)-codeine (30 mg) tablets as postoperative analgesics for 2 weeks. The primary outcome was pain intensity on swallowing measured on a numeric rating scale (NRSs) during the first postoperative week expressed as area under curve (AUC). The secondary endpoints included the worst pain experienced during the 2-hour follow-up in the postanesthesia care unit, pain intensity during the second postoperative week, and the number of ibuprofen and acetaminophen-codeine tablets consumed during the 2 postoperative weeks.
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A total of 115 patients received ibuprofen, 115 patients were given metamizole sodium and 110 patients were given paracetamol. Posttonsillectomy hemorrhage occurred in fourteen (4.11%) children, consisting of primary hemorrhage in two patients and secondary hemorrhage in twelve patients. While 6 of 115 children (5.21%) who were given ibuprofen had postoperative hemorrhage, 4 of 115 children (3.47%) in metamizole sodium group and 4 of 110 patients (3.63%) in paracetamol group had hemorrhage. There was no significant difference with respect to hemorrhage rates between these three groups (p<0.05).
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The mean age of the patients was 16.6±1.7 years (range 11-19 years), and 20 of the patients (71.4%) were female. Most of the patients (n=23, 82.1%) overdosed on a single drug; acetaminophen-containing analgesics were the most common (n=12, 42.9%). Depression was the most common psychiatric disorder (n=22, 78.6%), and interpersonal conflict was the most common precipitating factor of the suicide attempts (n=11, 39.3%). This was the first suicide attempt for approximately 80% of the patients. About one fourth of the patients (n=7, 25%) had follow-up visits at the psychiatric outpatient clinic.
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Previously, we found that guaifenesin enhances analgesia induced by paracetamol. The aim of the present study was to determine whether guaifenesin is able to also increase analgesic activity in the non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs ibuprofen, nimesulide and celecoxib. In addition we investigated the influence of guaifenesin on plasma levels of nimesulide.
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Modern air-powered pellet guns are capable of propelling their projectiles at velocities of 250 to 930 ft/s depending on their propulsion system-rivaling traditional small caliber firearms in the potential for serious soft tissue injuries. Management decisions regarding thoracic/cardiac pellet gun injuries must be based on the presentation and stability of the patient and the location of the retained pellet. We present a report of the nonsurgical management of an 8-year-old girl with a retained pericardial pellet and small stable effusion.
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This study is the first large-scale randomised placebo controlled trial to evaluate the efficacy of acupuncture compared to gabapentine and sham treatment and will provide valuable new information about the clinical and physiological effects of acupuncture and gabapentine in the treatment of acute herpes zoster pain. The study has been pragmatically designed to ensure that the study findings can be implemented into clinical practice if acupuncture can be shown to be an effective treatment strategy in acute herpes zoster pain.
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60 clusters (single independent nursing home units) in 18 nursing homes within five municipalities of western Norway.
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The method was successfully applied to the pharmacokinetic study of chiisanogenin in rat after oral administration of chiisanogenin and the extract of Acanthopanax sessiliflorus fruits. Other constituents in the extract affected the pharmacokinetic behavior of chiisanogenin.
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We found that APAP-AD were detected at 1h, peaked at approximately 2h, declined at 6h and almost full removed at 24h post treatment with APAP in mouse livers and in primary mouse hepatocytes. APAP-AD displayed a punctate pattern and were colocalized with GFP-LC3 positive autophagosomes and Lamp1 positive lysosomes in APAP-treated primary hepatocytes. Moreover, isolated autophagosomes and autolysosomes from APAP-treated mouse livers contained APAP-AD, suggesting autophagy may selectively remove APAP-AD. APAP-AD were detected in both detergent soluble and insoluble pools in APAP-treated mouse livers and hepatocytes. More importantly, pharmacological inhibition of autophagy by leupeptin or chloroquine increased whereas induction of autophagy by Torin 1 decreased serum APAP-AD levels in APAP-treated mice, which correlated with alanine aminotransferase levels and liver necrosis. Furthermore, SQSTM1/p62, an autophagy receptor protein, was recruited to APAP-AD. Adenovirus-mediated shRNA knockdown of SQSTM1/p62 led to increased APAP-AD and necrosis in primary hepatocytes.
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Acetaminophen overdose is a major concern among the pediatric population. Our objective was to assess the validity of International Classification of Disease (ICD-9-CM) codes for identification of pediatric emergency department (ED) visits resulting from acetaminophen exposure or overdose.
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OC/APAP ER was efficacious and generally well tolerated in an established model of moderate to severe acute pain, providing an onset of analgesia in approximately 30 minutes and sustained pain relief over the 12 hour dosing period.
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This study demonstrated the superiority of the IFC with some advantages on pain and disability outcomes when compared with sham IFC for the management of knee osteoarthritis. However, the effectiveness of different amplitude-modulated frequencies of IFC was not superior when compared with each other.
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We obtained a sample of 1,636 respondents. The general attitude towards generic medication was positive-only 5% would rather not use a generic. Nevertheless, only 17% of the respondents were able to recognize a generic medicine. Older consumers (aged 60 years and above) were more often confused about the different packages (OR = 2.59, 95% CI = 1.76-3.80, P ≤ 0.001). Consumers without a higher education degree tended to be more doubtful about the difference in effectiveness and quality between the different brands (OR = 0.59, 95% CI = 0.44-0.79, P ≤ 0.001). Consumer recognition of the name of the active substance of acetaminophen was poor. When different brands were displayed, possible price advantage seemed to be an important motive to switch to a cheaper brand. Consumers generally found medicines to be too expensive; however, consumers with medical or paramedical training had a different opinion.