A new emission estimation model was developed covering the life cycle pathways of pharmaceuticals from supply to discharge into surface water. The emission estimates of the model were assessed by coupling with SimpleBox to give predicted concentrations and by comparing the predicted concentrations with measured concentrations in Korean surface waters for five selected pharmaceuticals (acetaminophen, cephradine, ibuprofen, mefenamic acid, and naproxen).
ponstel generic price
Ibuprofen and mefenamic acid interfere with the antiplatelet effect of aspirin when added before the latter. The rate of platelet aggregation was reduced by 48·1% and 22·7%, respectively. The other NSAIDs tested did not significantly affect the aspirin antiplatelet effect when exposure was prior to aspirin. None of the nine NSAIDs altered the aspirin effect if administration followed that of aspirin.
ponstel 250 capsule
A single oral dose of mefenamic acid significantly depressed plasma thyroxine (T4) within 3 h in man. Similarly, mefenamic acid depressed plasma T4 within 3 h in thyroidectomized, T4-maintained rats. Plasma free fractions of T4 and tri-iodothyronine (T3) increased significantly after a single oral administration of mefenamic acid in man. In vitro addition of mefenamic acid to plasma also increased the plasma free fraction of T4. Three times more T3 was excreted into urine after an acute administration of mefenamic acid. In vitro conversion of T4 to T3 by liver homogenate was stimulated when T4 was displaced from plasma binding protein by mefenamic acid. Pituitary content of T3 increased when mefenamic acid displaced T4 and T3 from the binding protein. Simultaneously, thyrotropin (TSH) secretion in response to thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) was completely blocked by mefenamic acid. Prolactin release in response to TRH and luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) release in response to luteinizing hormone releasing hormone (LH-RH) were not affected by mefenamic acid. It is concluded that mefenamic acid displaces T3 and T4 from their plasma binding protein and more T4 and T3 are available to peripheral tissues for excretion, degradation and TSH regulation.
We studied the interaction of S-methylisothiourea (a selective inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibitor) with rofecoxib (selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor) and mefenamic acid (non-selective cyclooxygenase inhibitor) in Brewer's yeast-induced pyrexia in mice by isobolographic analysis. Each drug was effective in reducing pyrexia when used alone. Log-dose-response curves of all the three drugs did not show any significant departure from parallelism indicating thereby, a common mode of antipyretic action. However, rofecoxib exhibited significantly higher potency than S-methylisothiourea. Isobolographic analysis of combination of S-methylisothiourea with rofecoxib and mefenamic acid revealed additive interaction. Experimental ED(50) of the combinations was not significantly different from theoretical additive ED(50) of the corresponding drug combination, that substantiated the additive nature of interaction between inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase in Brewer's yeast-induced fever in mice. Results suggest involvement of a mediator that is subservient to both inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 enzyme activities. For further investigation, peroxynitrite ion may be considered to be the putative mediator.
ponstel 250 mg dosage
A controlled trial was undertaken to compare the efficacy of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) with standard intramuscular opiate analgesia in the management of postoperative pain following appendicectomy. Consecutive patients undergoing emergency appendicectomy were randomised into control, sham TENS and active TENS groups. There was a significant decrease in pain severity and analgesic intake in both active and sham TENS groups when compared with the control group (P less than 0.01). No difference was demonstrated in pain severity between active and sham TENS groups but the active TENS group required slightly less analgesia. These results suggest that the major benefit of TENS in the postappendicectomy patient is due to its 'placebo effect' and its use in this situation cannot be recommended.
76 women with dysfunctional uterine bleeding.
Forty women with established menorrhagia were treated with either mefenamic acid (500 mg thrice daily for 3-5 days in two cycles) or danazol (100 mg twice daily for 60 days) in an open parallel group randomized study. Mefenamic acid reduced mean menstrual blood loss from 160 ml to 127 ml (20%, P less than 0.01). Danazol reduced mean menstrual loss from 163 ml to 65 ml (60%, P less than 0.001). The percentage reduction in menstrual blood loss was significantly greater in the danazol group than in the mefenamic acid group, but the adverse side-effects occurred significantly more often in the danazol group (75%) than in the mefenamic acid group (30%, P less than 0.005). Overall, approximately half the women in each group were prepared to continue with the treatment they received to reduce their menstrual bleeding.
ponstel mefenamic acid capsules
We report mefenamic acid-induced non-oliguric renal failure and severe neutropenia occurring simultaneously in two elderly females. The neutropenia was due to maturation arrest of the myeloid series in one patient. Both patients were also hypothyroid, but it is not clear whether this was a predisposing factor to the development of these adverse reactions. However, it would seem prudent not to use mefenamic acid in hypothyroid patients until the hypothyroidism has been corrected.
ponstel medication cost
A rapid and simple microextraction method with a high sample clean-up, termed as tandem air-agitated liquid-liquid microextraction (TAALLME), is described. This method is based upon the tandem implementation of the air-agitated liquid-liquid microextraction (AALLME), and this approach improves the applicability of the dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) methods in complicated matrices. With very simple tools, the three non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs diclofenac, ibuprofen, and mefenamic acid were efficiently extracted, with an overall extraction time of 7 min. By performing the first AALLME, these acidic analytes, contained in an aqueous sample solution (donor phase, 8.0 mL), were extracted into the organic solvent (1,2-dichloroethane, 37 μL), and their simple back-extraction into the aqueous acceptor solution (pH, 10.01, 51 μL) was obtained in 2 min by a second implementation of AALLME. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used for optimization of the experimental parameters. The pH values 2.94 and 10.01 were obtained for the donor and acceptor phases, respectively, and the volumes 99.5 and 51 μL were obtained for the organic solvent and the acceptor phase, respectively, as the optimal extraction conditions. Under the optimized conditions, tandem AALLME-HPLC-UV provided a good linearity in the range of 0.5-4000 ng mL(-1), limits of detection (0.1-0.3 ng mL(-1)), extraction repeatabilities (relative standard deviations (RSDs) below 7.7%, n = 5), and the enrichment factors (EFs) of 80-104. Finally, the applicability of the proposed method was evaluated by the extraction and determination of the drugs under study in the wastewater and human plasma samples.
ponstel s syrup
In mice immunized with sheep erythrocytes introduction of acetylsalycilic acid (250 mg/kg), sodium salicylate (100 mg/kg) and mephenamic acid (100 mg/kg) exerted an inhibitory effect on the synthesis of antibody-forming cells and the titre of hemagglutinines in immunized animals. The acetylsalicylic acid and sodium salicylate are more effective on the 3--5th post-immunization day; the maximal effect of the mephenamic acid becomes apparent on the 7th day and its action is more lasting.
ponstel s dosage
The effects of prostaglandins (PGs) on melatonin secretion and norepinephrine (NE) and release in rat pineal gland were examined in vitro. To study melatonin secretion, pineal explants were incubated for 6 h in tissue culture 199 medium with 1-1000 nM PGE1, PGE2, or PGF2 alpha. melatonin concentration in pineal glands and media was determined by RIA, PGE2 increased pineal and medium melatonin at all concentrations tested, with a maximum of 1 nM; PGE1 was effective only at concentrations 100-1000 times greater, whereas 100 nM PGF2 alpha gland. Exposure of pineal explants to 10 microM NE brought about a 20-fold increase in melatonin release to the medium. This effect was impaired significantly, but not blocked, by prior exposure to indomethacin, acetylsalicylic acid, or mefenamic acid at supramaximal concentrations to inhibit PG synthesis (100 microM). To examine the effects of PGs on NE release, endogenous NE stores in pineal nerve endings were labeled in vitro by incubating rat pineals with [3H]NE for 30 min. Fifty minutes later, at the time when spontaneous radioactivity efflux had leveled off, transmitter release was elicited by a 1-min exposure to 80 mM K+ (S1), and the stimulus was repeated 35 min later (S2). PGs (10-100 nM) were added to the medium 20 min before S2. Ratios between fractional release of the two consecutive stimulations (S2/S1) varied between 0.84 and 1.16 in control pineals. Only 100 nM PGE2 impaired significantly transmitter release by 40%. These results suggest that PGE2 can play a role in NE-stimulated melatonin synthesis. At greater concentrations PGE2 inhibits NE release from pineal nerve endings.
The methods for quantitative determination of meloxicam and mefenamic acid in pharmaceuticals by classic spectrophotometry - zero order derivative, first and second order derivatives spectrophotometry is described, using "peak - peak" (P-P) and "peak - zero" (P-O) measurements. The calibration curves are linear within the concentration range of 4.0 - 14.0 microg/mL for meloxicam and 14.0 - 24.0 microg/mL for mefenamic acid. The procedure is simple, rapid and the results are reliable.
ponstel generic name
Three major metabolites of mefenamic acid were isolated from the urine of a normal adult man receiving mefenamic acid orally. The structures of those metabolites were determined as glucuronides of mefenamic acid, its hydroxymethyl derivative, and its carboxylic acid derivative on the basis of spectral data.
ponstel drug interactions
The authors describe a simple non-crossover-blind test for the evaluation of subjective indices. A table for recording pains during the 14 days' study is described. The patient's satisfaction with the treatment and the number of days until withdrawal from the trial are recorded. The statistical procedure takes into consideration differences between the treatment groups and makes possible a valuable comparison with drugs tested in other clinical trials. The three dose schedules of antirheumatic treatment were tested on 122 patients and the results compared with those of 342 patients treated with the 6 other antirheumatic drugs (enteric-coated aspirin, paracetamol, indomethacin, flurbiprofen, mefenamic acid, and prednisolone) and those of 41 patients who received placebos. The results show that Safapryn (3,6 g aspirin + 3.0 g paracetamol daily) compared with 3.9 g enteric coated aspirin does not offer any advantage in its analgesic effect, although it gives rise to fewer side effects. Phenylbutazone (3000 mg) was almost as effective as 15 mg prednisolone daily. Between the effects of this dosage of phenylbutazone and other non-steroidal antirheumatic drugs, however, no significant difference could be detected. 50 mg phenylbutazone daily and placebo treatment could not be distinguished. The authors thank the Arthritis and Rheumatism Council for Research in Great Britain for its financial support. One of the authors (PL) was a Merck, Sharp, and Dohme Research Fellow and another one (PMB) received a Robins research scholarship.
ponstel 250 mg uses
The binding of racemic warfarin, its enantiomers, and several nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents to human serum albumin was investigated by equilibrium dialysis at 4 degrees C in pH 7.4 phosphate buffer. The primary binding constant for the S(-) enantiomer of warfarin was approximately two times greater than the corresponding binding of the R(+) enantiomer. The effect of azapropazone, phenylbutazone, naproxen, ibuprofen, mefenamic acid, and tolmetin on the binding of racemic warfarin and its enantiomers was studied. Warfarin was displaced by all of the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents except tolmetin. Azapropazone caused the largest displacement of warfarin (39 to 46% free warfarin versus 2.5 to 6% free warfarin without competing drug), followed by phenylbutazone (23 to 43% free warfarin), naproxen (9 to 24% free warfarin), mefenamic acid (5 to 11.5% free warfarin), and ibuprofen (5 to 9% free warfarin). Azapropazone and phenylbutazone competed with warfarin for the same primary binding site on the albumin molecule. Naproxen appeared to affect warfarin binding at both primary and secondary sites. Ibuprofen and mefenamic acid interfered with the binding of warfarin at its secondary sites. In contrast to the other drugs studied, tolmetin caused an increase in the primary binding constant of warfarin. Structural analysis indicated that a common feature of those compounds which primarily bind at the warfarin site is a hydrophobic area bearing a widely delocalized negative charge.
ponstel 250 mg
Sixty-nine women with a convincing complaint of menorrhagia took part in a double-blind treatment trial. Menstrual blood loss was measured and the subject's own perception was carefully recorded. Only 38% had objective menorrhagia with a measured loss greater than 80 ml although 59% would qualify with an upper limit of normal of 60 ml. Overall the measured loss in the "heaviest" periods (69.6 +/- 7.3 ml; mean +/- SEM) were significantly greater than that of the "lightest" periods (42.7 +/- 4.7 ml; p less than 0.001), but there were many major errors in perception by individuals. Perceived daily blood loss volume on a 4-point rating scale gave the following group means and ranges: spotting, 2.5 ml (0.1 to 15.5); light, 5.7 ml (0.1 to 63.1); moderate, 16.1 ml (0.5 to 108.6); very heavy, 22.0 ml (1.4 to 215.8); very wide individual ranges of assessment are illustrated. As a whole the group was also able to distinguish between a day-to-day volume increase or decrease, but again there were many major errors. Some subjects who experienced a reduction in measured blood loss from one day to the next actually perceived this as a large increase. Menstrual pain and duration of bleeding were not found to influence perception of blood loss volume, whereas younger subjects (26 and under) were significantly more likely than older women (37 and over) to regard a moderate loss as very heavy. There was no significant correlation between the number of pads/tampons used and the measured menstrual loss, and some individuals showed extreme variations between blood loss and pad usage. This study suggests that the only reliable assessment of menstrual blood loss volume and changes in volume in women complaining of menorrhagia is obtained by objective measurement of blood loss by a technique such as alkaline hematin extraction.
ponstel 250 mg tablets
A double-blind randomized single dose study of the analgesic effects of 650 mg aspirin, 250 mg mefenamic acid, the combination of 650 mg aspirin and 250 mg mefenamic acid and placebo on 120 patients with pain following oral surgery was conducted. Patients evaluated their pain intensity and extent of pain relief at 1, 2, 3 and 4 h after drug administration. For most parameters, including the sum of the pain intensity differences and the sum of the hourly pain relief scores, each of the drugs was more effective than placebo. Aspirin-mefenamic acid in combination was more effective than both drugs alone, and aspirin and mefenamic acid alone were equally effective for most of the analgesic variables.
ponstel 250mg capsules
In this work, a mefenamic acid (MFA) nanosensor was synthesized by the aid of molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) technique. MIP layer was coated on magnetite nanoparticles as magnetic nano-carriers. Synthesized nanoparticles were characterized using various measurements techniques. Light scattering properties of the synthesized nanoparticles in the presence or absence of MFA have been selected as the detection signal. In this regard, resonance light scattering has been used as the detection method. Various factors that can potentially affect light scattering efficiency (i.e., pH, ultrasonication time and nanoparticle dosage) were optimized using "one-at-a-time" method. A linear dynamic range was established from 100.0 to 2000.0 ng L(-1) of MFA and the limit of detection was found to be 50.0 ng L(-1) using the proposed method.
The colorimetric determination of mefenamic acid and flufenamic acid with potassium ferricyanide in sodium hydroxide medium is described. The orange product is measured at 464 nm. The molar absorptivities are 1.9 x 10(3) and 2.9 x 10(3) 1.mole(-1).cm(-1) for mefenamic acid and flufenamic acid, respectively. The method has been applied successfully to the determination of these drugs in capsules.
ponstel generic cost
To determine the effectiveness and safety of ibuprofen compared to placebo or no intervention for closing a PDA in preterm and/or low birth weight infants. To determine the effectiveness and safety of ibuprofen compared to other cyclo-oxygenase inhibitors (including indomethacin, mefenamic acid) for closing a PDA in preterm and/or low birth weight infants.