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Ten physically active men (age, 26 ± 4 yr; height, 1.76 ± 0.08 m; body mass, 76.3 ± 10.6 kg; V˙O2peak, 57 ± 8 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)) were recruited for this study. Participants cycled for 1 h at 60% V˙O2peak followed by a 30-min exercise test, during which they were instructed to complete as much work as possible. Heart rate, skin and core temperatures, as well as RPE and thermal stress were recorded throughout the exercise, and blood samples were collected at rest, at 15-min intervals during the first hour of exercise, and at the end of the exercise test. Finger tapping tests at the beginning and end of the exercise were conducted to examine fine motor control.
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Together these results support the hypothesis that, in healthy men, dopamine is not closely linked to euphorogenic effects of abused substances but does affect the salience of reward-related cues and the ability to respond to them preferentially.
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These results confirm that L-dopa administration increases the healing in nonunion fractures. The combination of L-dopa/carbidopa did not significantly increase fracture healing.
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Twenty-one patients with Parkinson's disease and motor fluctuations who completed a double-blind study comparing controlled-release carbidopa/levodopa (Sinemet CR4) with standard Sinemet (SS) were evaluated one year following completion of the study. Five patients remained on CR4 alone; 16 continued on CR4 plus SS, and one also required addition of bromocriptine. Patients were significantly worse (p less than 0.05) at one year compared with double-blind CR4 phase (DBCR) for nine parameters of the motor exam, six activities of daily living (ADL), Hoehn & Yahr staging, and physician's global assessment. Compared with baseline SS, patients were worse at one year for four points of the motor exam, two of mentation, behavior, and mood, and 11 parameters of ADL. Improvement at one year was noted for less action and postural tremor and decreased duration of dyskinesias for both comparison periods. There was elimination of early morning dystonia at one year over the DBCR period and more hours "on" without dyskinesias and fewer hours "on" with dyskinesias compared with baseline SS. Total levodopa dosage was not significantly changed over the year. These data suggest that, in long-term use, CR4 remains more efficacious than SS alone for Parkinson's patients experiencing motor fluctuations, although disease progression continues despite optimal medication.
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The safety and efficacy of Sinemet CR were studied in an open-label, 52-week trial. The study was completed by 156 mildly to moderately ill Parkinson's patients (primarily Hoehn and Yahr stage II to III) at 10 sites. Patients had their treatment optimized on standard Sinemet prior to beginning Sinemet CR treatment. Following titration, there was a median reduction in dosing frequency of 25% (from 4.1 to 3.2 doses/day) relative to the standard Sinemet baseline. Total daily levodopa dosage increased from 623 to 808 mg/day (+33%), a factor consistent with the lower bioavailability of the controlled-release formulation. Mean efficacy scores on the New York University Parkinson's Disease Scale decreased from 7.4 at the end of baseline to 5.8 at 12 weeks, a decline of 20%. The scores remained at this level throughout 52 weeks of treatment. At the end of 1 year of treatment, 60% of patients rated themselves as improved, while physicians rated 64% of the patients as improved. Adverse experiences were similar to those reported by patients taking standard levodopa preparations. Two thirds of the reported adverse experiences occurred within the 1st 3 months of Sinemet CR therapy, indicating that increased length of exposure to Sinemet CR was not associated with an increasing incidence of adverse experiences.
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The peripheral decarboxylase inhibitors benserazide and carbidopa, often administered in combination with L-dopa in the treatment of Parkinson's disease, are also very good inhibitors of semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase (SSAO). In untreated patients and in patients treated with L-dopa alone, plasma SSAO activity is normal. In patients treated with L-dopa plus benserazide or carbidopa (Madopar or Sinemnet), however, plasma SSAO activity is strongly inhibited, contrary to the paradoxical 3-fold increase in plasma aromatic-L-amino acid decarboxylase activity we reported previously. Single-dose and longitudinal studies show that the SSAO inhibition proceeds rapidly and increases even further to nearly complete inhibition after continued treatment, while aromatic-L-amino acid decarboxylase activity only transiently decreases after a single dose and increases slowly with continued treatment above pretreatment levels. Dialysis experiments confirm that the binding of benserazide to SSAO is irreversible, especially after chronic treatment. The lack of knowledge about the exact function of SSAO precludes definite conclusions about the effect of this chronic SSAO inhibition on patients. Careful follow-up studies of patients treated with Madopar or Sinemet might provide further information about the possible physiological role of SSAO.
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Post hoc analyses of patient data from a 12-week, randomized, double-blind study and a 54-week open-label study were performed. Efficacy was assessed in the subgroup of patients defined by ≥1 hour of "on" time with troublesome dyskinesia at baseline as recorded in Parkinson's disease symptom diaries (double blind: n = 11 levodopa-carbidopa intestinal gel, n = 12 oral levodopa-carbidopa; open label: n = 144 levodopa-carbidopa intestinal gel). The changes in "off" time, "on" time with and without troublesome dyskinesia, and the overall safety and tolerability of levodopa-carbidopa intestinal gel were analyzed.
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L-DOPA administration to 21--25-day-old rats with inherited stress-induced arterial hypertension (ISIAH rats)lowered arterial pressure both at rest and in emotional stress in adult rats. The effect seems to be due to enhancement of the brain catecholamine synthesis rather than the peripheral one in early ontogenesis. The long-term hypotensive effect of the L-DOPA was supposed to be caused in part by changes revealed in the brain catecholaminergic system.
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Long-term follow-up of eight patients who underwent stereotactic grafting of adrenal medullary tissue into unilateral or bilateral caudate nuclei is presented. We demonstrate that this procedure can be performed with minimal risk. Our results show little benefit when the group as a whole is analyzed. A subgroup of four patients was identified who responded to the procedure, as evidenced by a reduction in motor scores, reduction in medication requirements, and greater "on" time. Three of these patients continue to accrue benefit after 2 years. No characterization of a responder profile was evident. We conclude that a modest benefit is derived from this procedure that may persist for as long as 2 years. Future clinical studies to evaluate grafting procedures are encouraged.
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To evaluate the efficacy of carbidopa L-dopa (Sinemet) in reducing left spatial neglect after stroke.
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Orthostatic tremor (OT) is a clinically defined syndrome of leg tremor while standing. Controversy surrounds whether OT is a distinct syndrome or is an essential tremor (ET) variant. We report two patients with OT. Electrophysiological testing included polymyography, accelerometry, nerve conduction, and evoked potential studies. The effects of various maneuvers and body positions on the tremor were assessed. The findings included rapid (15-17 Hz) lower-extremity tremor burst frequency evoked by standing but not by walking or swaying; rapid upper-extremity burst pattern synchronous with lower-extremity bursts; and failure of electrical stimulation or mental concentration to "reset" the tremor. Additionally, there was the novel finding of accelerometric recordings in the legs revealing the same rapid frequency (16-17 Hz) as the electromyographic tremor bursts. Some prior reports have suggested that OT is related to ET by emphasizing a considerable disparity and variability between the accelerometric tremor frequency and the electromyographic burst frequency. In our patients, however, the rapid (15-17 Hz) accelerometer-recorded tremor synchronous with the electromyographic bursts, and also the clinical improvement with clonazepam but not beta blockers or mysoline, and the lack of a family history of ET provide support that OT is distinct from ET.
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The highest levels of l-dopa and 3-OMD were observed in patients with stage 3 of Hoehn and Yahr scale. We showed differences in the pk/pd parameters after coadministration of tolcapone in 1 patient as well as the clinical improvement.Univariate analysis showed some significant correlations (P < 0.05) between l-dopa pk/pd parameters and patients' age, duration of l-dopa treatment, and duration of the disease. Multivariate analysis adjusted for patients' age, sex, duration of the disease, and Hoehn and Yahr stage showed that presence of diphasic (dyskinesia-improvement-dyskinesia [DID]) dyskinesias was the only independent predictor of larger threshold level - EC50 (mean concentration at half maximal effect) of l-dopa (P = 0.034).
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Several large, open-label studies have presented data that are in line with the randomized controlled trial on L-dopa-carbidopa intestinal gel infusion, which shows that a continuous drug delivery can improve motor fluctuations and dyskinesia in patients with advanced Parkinson's disease. Furthermore, new extended-release formulations of L-dopa aim to stabilize plasma concentrations and thus reduce the degree of motor complications - despite a reduced number of daily doses. Transdermal rotigotine has been shown to be effective for specific subgroups of patients, although the general effect on nonmotor symptoms is still unclear. New products for L-dopa infusion are also at different stages of development, but the routes of administration are widely different: intrajejunal, subcutaneous, and oral.
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"Wearing-off" effect, the most common form of levodopa-induced fluctuations, seems to be related to the short plasma half-life of the drug. More sustained plasma levodopa levels may be achieved with a new controlled-release formulation of carbidopa/levodopa, Sinemet CR4. We studied 20 patients, 12 men and 8 women, with Parkinson's disease complicated by "wearing-off" phenomenon. Mean age was 61.1 +/- 8.1 years, duration of symptoms 8.3 +/- 2.4 years, and the Hoehn-Yahr stage 3.0 +/- 0.9. In a 12-week double-blind study, the average number of tablets administered per day decreased from 5.7 +/- 1.2 to 3.8 +/- 0.7 when Sinemet CR4 (50/200) was substituted for the standard Sinemet (25/100) (p less than 0.001). However, this was at the expense of reducing the "on" time (without dyskinesia) from 9.3 +/- 4.6 to 7.5 +/- 4.3 (p less than 0.05), although the total "on" time did not significantly change. In a long-term follow-up of 18 patients, the "on" time with dyskinesia and morning dystonia significantly increased (p less than 0.05). There was no significant change in the total daily dosage of levodopa, but the daily number of doses and tablets significantly decreased (p less than 0.001). Despite increased dyskinesia, most patients preferred taking fewer tablets and have elected to continue taking Sinemet CR4 instead of standard Sinemet. Sinemet CR4 seems to offer a new and effective strategy for the management of levodopa-related fluctuations.
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Thirty-seven patients with advanced Parkinson's disease who initially tolerated, and responded to bromocriptine therapy were followed for 12 to 50 (mean 28) months. Using a method of gradual increase of bromocriptine, with concomitant levodopa reduction, the peak effect of the drug was apparent by three months, at which time the mean daily dose of bromocriptine was 23.9 mg and Sinemet (levodopa + carbidopa) had been reduced by 34 percent. Eight patients had sustained improvement without further drug changes for an average of 29 (range 14-50) months. After periods of improvement varying between 3 and 30 months, 29 patients had a fall-off from peak effect. Peak effect was regained in 21 of these 29 patients for an average of 16 additional months by initially increasing bromocriptine or Sinemet, or by eventually increasing both drugs. The main adverse effect was a confusional state which necessitated late withdrawal of bromocriptine in four patients. The best results were in younger patients with end-of-dose deterioration and levodopa induced dyskinesias. With cautious introduction, and intermittent dosage adjustment, bromocriptine can be of long-term benefit to patients with advance Parkinson's disease. The majority of patients have a gradual late fall-off in effect which can frequently be reversed with dosage adjustment.
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To compare two surrogate indicators of population disease burden for Parkinson's disease: utilization of Sinemet and Parkinson's disease mortality.
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For best symptom management, careful consideration should be given to scheduling surgery at the earliest possible time, administering medications as close to the patient's usual dosing schedule as possible, and providing nursing education about optimal medication management for this patient population.
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Sinemet (a combination of levodopa with carbidopa, a dopa-decarboxylase inhibitor) has replaced levodopa for early treatment of parkinsonism. The blocking of the systemic uptake of dopamine has eliminated the previous complications of nausea, vomiting, and cardiac and respiratory arrhythmias; pyridoxine need not now be avoided. However, the earlier appearance of abnormal involuntary movements, hallucinations, occasional psychosis, and a dopa-resistant state limits treatment efficacy. In all-over experience the combination drug offers the best relief for rigidity and akinesia. It has improved the quality of life and reduced mortality by one half. The greatest benefits appear in the first 3 years; then complications set in. The relation of complications to dosage is now better understood, and the ratio of dopa-decarboxylase inhibitor to levodopa inhibitor to levodopa of 1:4 is better than the previous 1:10. Levodopa with or without dopa decarboxylase is not a cure for parkinsonism. Some agonist drugs (bromocryptine, lisuride) are showing promise in the testing stage. The evolving knowledge about neurotransmitters and peptide messengers offers hope for the growing number of patients with parkinsonism.
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The objective was to investigate the neuroprotective role of Beta vulgaris in Parkinson's disease (PD).
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Economic appraisal differs from clinical assessment, and decision makers benefit from analysis of naturalistic, actual practice data. Despite reviewing the initial trial-based, 'piggy-back' economic analysis, TLV was uncertain of the cost effectiveness in actual practice and deferred a final decision until observational data from the DAPHNE study became available. Second, acceptance of economic modelling and use of temporary reimbursement conditional on additional evidence development provide a mechanism for risk sharing between TLV and manufacturers, which enabled patient access to a drug with proven clinical benefit while necessary evidence to support claims of cost effectiveness could be generated.
Eight parkinsonian patients participated in a pharmacokinetic pharmacodynamic study of sequential doses of controlled-release carbidopa (CD)/levodopa (LD) at 4-hour intervals, with serial blood samples obtained before and after each dose. Effect measurements obtained with each blood sample included tapping and walking speed as well as a global assessment of motor function. Analysis of the data by extended least squares regression for linear, Emax, and sigmoid Emax pharmacodynamic models revealed that linear relationships do not provide the best fit between LD plasma concentrations and clinical effects after controlled-release CD/LD. The data are fit best to models that are curvilinear in nature. LD plasma concentrations greater than 2.0 micrograms/ml resulted in sustained effects on walking and global scores while the greatest rate of change in walking and global scores occurred at 0.9 micrograms/ml. LD plasma concentrations fluctuating around 0.9 micrograms/ml may result in the "on/off" effects seen in Parkinson's disease.