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Atlantoaxial degenerative articular cysts are rare lesions that can cause extradural compression of the cervicomedullary junction. When symptomatic, they usually require surgical treatment. We report an unusual case of spontaneous regression of an atlantoaxial degenerative articular cyst after conservative treatment with an external cervical brace along with a systemic therapy with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and steroids. We also discuss the potential pathogenetic mechanisms involved.
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One significant disadvantage of using reverse osmosis (RO) for reclamation purposes is the need to dispose of the RO retentates. These retentates contain a high concentration of micropollutants, effluent organic matter (EfOM) and other inorganic constituents, which are recalcitrant to biological treatment and may impact the environment. The occurrence of 11 pharmaceuticals (concentrations ranging from 0.2 to 1.6 μg L(-1)) and their mitigation in RO retentates by a UV/H2O2 process and ozonation was studied using a wide range of oxidant dosages. Eleven pharmaceuticals were identified at. Initial observed kinetic constants (kobs) were calculated for the different pharmaceuticals. Other typical wastewater parameters were also monitored during the UV/H2O2 and ozonation reactions. The range for kobs was found to be 0.8-12.8L mmol O3(-1) and 9.7-29.9 L mmol H2O2(-1) for the ozonation and UV/H2O2 process, respectively. For ozonation, Atenolol, Carbamazepine, Codeine, Trimethoprim and Diclofenac showed the lowest initial kobs (in the order mentioned). Atenolol and Carbamazepine appeared as the most ozone resistant pharmaceuticals, exhibiting the lowest percentage of elimination at low ozone doses. On the other hand, despite the non-selectivity of HO, differences in the initial kobs were also observed during the UV/H2O2 process. Trimethoprim, Paroxetine and Sulfamethoxazole exhibited the lowest initial kobs values (in the order mentioned). Trimethoprim and Paroxetine also exhibited the lowest percentage removal when low H2O2 doses were assayed. The compounds that were identified as problematic during ozonation were more efficiently removed by the UV/H2O2 process. UV/H2O2 generally appeared to be a more efficient technology for removing pharmaceuticals from RO brines compared to ozonation.
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Anti-inflammatory activity of SiE was investigated in rats using ethyl phenylpropiolate (EPP)-induced ear edema, carrageenan- and arachidonic acid (AA)-induced hind paw edema, and cotton pellet-induced granuloma formation models. Acetic acid-induced writhing response in mice and tail-flick test in rats as well as yeast-induced hyperthermia in rats were used to investigate the antinociceptive and antipyretic activities, respectively.
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A novel method was developed for spectral resolution and further determination of five-component mixture including Vitamin B complex (B1, B6, B12 and Benfotiamine) along with the commonly co-formulated Diclofenac. The method is simple, sensitive, precise and could efficiently determine the five components by a complementary application of two different techniques. The first is univariate second derivative method that was successfully applied for determination of Vitamin B12. The second is Multivariate Curve Resolution using the Alternating Least Squares method (MCR-ALS) by which an efficient resolution and quantitation of the quaternary spectrally overlapped Vitamin B1, Vitamin B6, Benfotiamine and Diclofenac sodium were achieved. The effect of different constraints was studied and the correlation between the true spectra and the estimated spectral profiles were found to be 0.9998, 0.9983, 0.9993 and 0.9933 for B1, B6, Benfotiamine and Diclofenac, respectively. All components were successfully determined in tablets and capsules and the results were compared to HPLC methods and they were found to be statistically non-significant.
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An in vitro reactive intermediate screening assay, incorporating the use of the close analog of glutathione, glutathione ethyl ester (GSH-EE) as a conjugating agent, was developed to identify compounds that form reactive intermediates in an in vitro metabolite generating system. The biological assay consisted of substrate [s] = 10 microM, human liver microsomes, an NADPH generating system and glutathione ethyl ester. Conjugates were extracted from the biological matrix using a combination of protein precipitation and a semi-automated 96-well plate solid phase extraction (SPE) procedure. A micro-bore liquid chromatography-micro-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (microLC-microESI-MS/MS) method detected glutathione ethyl ester conjugates using selected reaction monitoring (SRM) to simultaneously monitor for multiple MH+ to [MH - 129]+ transitions, where the 129 mass unit (Da) represents the neutral loss of the pyroglutamate moiety from GSH-EE. The multiple MH+ to [MH - 129]+ transitions (SRM mass table) were generated for potential reactive intermediates of each compound. Glutathione (GSH) and GSH-EE conjugate standards were used to evaluate MS detection sensitivity. Based on direct comparison of standard curve data, an approximate 10-fold increase in sensitivity was observed for conjugates containing GSH-EE moiety versus GSH. In vitro experiments were conducted using literature substrates acetaminophen, rosiglitazone, clozapine, diclofenac and either GSH-EE or GSH as a reactive intermediate conjugating agent. An increase in detection sensitivity was observed for each GSH-EE conjugate and in the case of acetaminophen-GSH-EE the peak area increase was approximately 80-fold. Twelve drug compounds, each having known biotransformation mechanisms, were used to further test the detection capabilities of the assay and establish a concordance to literature data. When GSH was used in the assay, conjugates were detected for 4 out of the 12 test compounds (33%). When GSH-EE was used in the assay, conjugates were detected for 10 out of the 12 test compounds (83%).
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To analyze the amount and pattern of use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in Serbia and to compare these parameters with those in Croatia and Denmark. The prescribing pattern of NSAIDs in Serbia as a direct indicator of physicians' knowledge of these agents was also assessed.
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A prospective, randomized, double-blind clinical trial was performed on 60 eyes from 60 patients to evaluate the effects of topical diclofenac, dexamethasone and placebo (BSS) on epithelial wound healing, inflammation and duration of pain in the 3 days following surgery.
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DF, an organochemically synthesized linkage variant, and five major Phase I metabolites were covalently coupled to carrier proteins. Drug conjugates were analyzed for coupling degree and capacity to crosslink receptor-bound IgE antibodies from drug-sensitized mice. With these conjugates, the presence of hapten-specific IgE antibodies was investigated in patients' samples by ELISA, mediator release assay, and basophil activation test. Production of sulfidoleukotrienes by drug conjugates was determined in PBMCs from DF-hypersensitive patients. All conjugates were shown to carry more than two haptens per carrier molecule. Immunization of mice with drug conjugates induced drug-specific IgE antibodies capable of triggering mediator release. Therefore, the conjugates are suitable tools for detection of drug-specific antibodies and for determination of their anaphylactic activity. Fifty-nine patients were enrolled and categorized as hypersensitive either selectively to DF or to multiple NSAIDs. In none of the patients' samples evidence for drug/metabolite-specific IgE in serum or bound to allergic effector cells was found. In contrast, a small group of patients (8/59, 14%) displayed drug/metabolite-specific IgG.
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To understand in situ drug thermodynamic activity when embedded in a supramolecular structured hydrophilic matrix that simultaneously self-assembled during drug supersaturation.
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Clinical and immunological efficacy of 2.5% orthophene and 50% dimexide used to arrest an acute inflammatory process in the periodontium is assessed. Three types of salivary neutrophils are distinguished, similar to previously detected types of response of blood immunocompetent cells. Both drugs had a favorable impact on the functional activity of blood T-lymphocytes, blood and salivary neutrophils and are recommended for patients with types I and II reactions of immunocompetent cells of the blood.
The effects of two common diluents (microcrystalline cellulose and calcium phosphate dihydrate), two binding agents (gelatin and methacrylic polymer), and spheronization on the micromeritic (size, shape, density), flow, and packing properties of sodium diclofenac pellets were examined. The shape was assessed as the aspect ratio and was correlated to the flow rate and to the deviation of the tapped porosity from the value of 26%, which corresponds to the ideal rhombohedral packing of spheres. It was found that porosity deviation decreased greatly with spheronization, but it increased with hinder addition. Porosity deviation was proportional to the aspect ratio, while flow rate decreased logarithmically with porosity deviation. Porosity deviation may be a useful index for monitoring the quality of pellets, similar to the aspect ratio, as a successful, simple, and indirect indication of sphericity and of surface roughness as well.
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This study was registered in the UMIN Clinical Trials Registry (Registry ID number; UMIN000008114).
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A prospective, single-blind clinical study was performed at 2 centers. A total of 86 patients with acute renal colic were randomized to 3 treatment groups of 120 mg intravenous papaverine hydrochloride (29), 75 mg intramuscular sodium diclofenac (30), and papaverine hydrochloride plus sodium diclofenac (27). Pain intensity was assessed with the Visual Analog Scale at 0, 20 and 40 minutes after treatment. Further analgesia given at patient request consisted of 1 mg/kg intramuscular meperidine. Urinalysis, complete blood evaluation and imaging were performed in all patients. All adverse effects were recorded.
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9 healthy cats.
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Eighty-six infertile outpatients with repeated implantation failure following transfer of morphologically good embryos and/or blastocysts underwent single curettage LEI to improve the pregnancy outcome in the subsequent embryo/blastocyst transfer cycle. Of them, 35 patients chose diclofenac suppository administration prior to LEI, whereas 51 patients did not. The occurrence of palpitations, bradycardia, hypotension, presyncope, and requirement of bed rest was compared between the two groups.
This study was planned to compare the effects of suppositories, indomethacin, diclofenac and acetaminophen, on post-operative pain and opioid usage after cesarean section.
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A pronounced anti-inflammatory effect of high peak-power pulsed electromagnetic radiation of extremely high frequency was shown for the first time in a model of zymosan-induced footpad edema in mice. Exposure to radiation of specific parameters (35, 27 GHz, peak power 20 kW, pulse widths 400-600 ns, pulse repetition frequency 5-500 Hz) decreased the exudative edema and local hyperthermia by 20% compared to the control. The kinetics and the magnitude of the anti-inflammatory effect were comparable with those induced by sodium diclofenac at a dose of 3 mg/kg. It was found that the anti-inflammatory effect linearly increased with increasing pulse width at a fixed pulse repetition frequency and had threshold dependence on the average incident power density of the radiation at a fixed pulse width. When animals were whole-body exposed in the far-field zone of radiator, the optimal exposure duration was 20 min. Increasing the average incident power density upon local exposure of the inflamed paw accelerated both the development of the anti-inflammatory effect and the reactivation time. The results obtained will undoubtedly be of great importance in the hygienic standardization of pulsed electromagnetic radiation and in further studies of the mechanisms of its biological action.