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Erythromycin and other macrolides have enjoyed a renaissance in the 1970s, 1980s and 1990s secondary to the discovery of "new' pathogens such as Chlamydia, Legionella, Campylobacter and Mycoplasma spp. Erythromycin is an important therapeutic agent in the paediatric age group for several reasons: (a) it exhibits proven efficacy for a wide range of infections (upper and lower respiratory tract infections, skin/skin structure infections, prophylaxis of endocarditis/acute rheumatic fever/ophthalmia neonatorum and pre-colonic surgery, campylobacteriosis, chlamydial and ureaplasmal infections, diphtheria, whooping cough, streptococcal pharyngitis) and gastrointestinal (GI) dysmotility states; (b) intravenous formulations are widely available; and (c) it is available in a number of formulations as a generic product, which is likely to result in significant cost savings. Nevertheless, erythromycin and similar earlier macrolides are characterised by a number of drawbacks including a narrow spectrum of antimicrobial activity, unfavourable pharmacokinetic properties and poor GI tolerability. Newer macrolides such as clarithromycin and azithromycin are useful in serving the needs of paediatric patients who are erythromycin-intolerant or who have infections caused by organisms that are intrinsically erythromycin-resistant, or for which a high percentage of strains are resistant (e.g. Haemophilus influenzae, Helicobacter pylori, Mycobacterium avium complex). In addition, these newer macrolides may be considered as alternatives to oral amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, second or third generation cephalosporins, or erythromycin plus sulphonamide in this patient population. Selection between specific macrolides and between macrolides and other antibiotics in the paediatric population is likely to depend, at least for the immediate future, on separate comparisons of product availability, cost, effectiveness and tolerability profiles.
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During 2006 in Ontario, 28% of N. gonorrhoeae isolates were resistant to quinolones. Infections in heterosexual men appear to have contributed significantly to the quinolone resistance rate. Medical practitioners should be aware of the widespread prevalence of quinolone-resistant N. gonorrhoeae and avoid quinolone use for empiric therapy.
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Since 2006, the empiric use of azithromycin in women at risk of premature birth has become prevalent in our institution without any evidence of its efficacy. Although antibiotics can prolong pregnancy in preterm prolonged rupture of membranes, no published data are available for women with intact membranes.
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A retrospective cohort study of children born between 2001 and 2012 was performed utilizing the military health system database. Infants prescribed either oral erythromycin or azithromycin as outpatients in the first 90 days of life were evaluated for development of IHPS. Specific diagnostic and procedural codes were used to identify cases of IHPS.
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An outbreak of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Shigella sonnei enteritis, especially in pediatric populations, was unprecedented not only in Korea, but also throughout the world in the past. This study was intended to devise a management guideline for shigellosis caused by an ESBL-producing strain based on analysis of the clinical manifestations and response to therapy.
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Obligate anaerobes are closely involved in the pathogenesis of oral and focal infections. The objective of this study was to evaluate the susceptibility profiles of obligate anaerobes of oral origin to telithromycin (TLM), moxifloxacin (MXF), and other antibiotics that are commonly used in dentistry.
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Our study is the first to describe the clinical significance, risk factors and susceptibility patterns of NTM isolates in a Greek population.
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Actively replicating C. pneumoniae can be eliminated in vitro from cell types, involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis by various antibiotics. These data provide an experimental background for the selection of antibiotics in clinical eradication studies and will help to assess the potential success of prevention and eradication therapies.
The author reviewed the current clinical pharmacology literature with specific emphasis on reports indicating these antibiotics' efficacy in treating oral-dental infections.
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Forty four bacterial respiratory clinical isolates from microbiology department of tertiary care hospital from Mumbai were used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of cefixime and azithromycin. Synergy testing of cefixime combination with azithromycin was performed by checkerboard method. Interaction was determined according to calculated FIC index.
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In this study the effects of exposure to serum, lung and breakpoint concentrations on Streptococcus pneumoniae susceptibility to clarithromycin, azithromycin, amoxicillin/clavulanate, levofloxacin and moxifloxacin were evaluated. Development of resistance was determined by multi-step and single-step methodologies. In the first experimental set, minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined after 10 passages on antibiotic-gradient plates and 10 passages on antibiotic-free plates. Acquisition of resistance was defined as an increase of > or = 4-fold from the starting MIC. In single-step studies, the rate of spontaneous mutations was calculated after a passage on antibiotic-containing agar plates. Azithromycin and levofloxacin gave the highest number of strains with MIC increased of at least 4 times the starting value, followed by moxifloxacin and by clarithromycin which only at the lowest concentration tested selected for resistance in 5 strains. Amoxicillin/clavulanate never displayed > or = 4-fold MIC increase. Frequencies of mutation were lower for clarithromycin and moxifloxacin than for the comparators. At lung concentrations clarithromycin had limited potential to select for resistance.
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Our results demonstrate that azithromycin's ability to stimulate the differentiation of human meibomian gland cells is unique, and is not duplicated by doxycycline, minocycline, or tetracycline. Azithromycin, but not the other antibiotics, significantly increased the cellular accumulation of cholesterol, cholesterol esters, phospholipids, and lysosomes. These differentiative actions of azithromycin were paralleled by an increased expression of sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1.
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In standard strains, the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of meropenem, ceftazidime, amikacin and ciprofloxacin alone were measured. Then the MICs of four antibiotics respectively plus EPI, including reserpine, omeprazole, azithromycin, carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenyl- hydrazone (CCCP) and Phe-Arg-β-naphtylamide (PAβN), were measured by checkerboard test. And the mutant prevention concentrations (MPC) of antibiotics alone and antibiotics plus different EPIs were also measured by agar dilution method. Selection indices (SI) were acquired through MPC divided by MIC. Similarly, the SI of meropenem, ceftazidime and ciprofloxacin which respectively plus amikacin and amikacin plus ciprofloxacin were measured. In clinical strains, MIC, MPC and SI of antibiotics alone and four antibiotics plus CCCP were measured.
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The macrolide antibiotics azithromycin and clarithromycin are large molecular weight compounds that exhibit moderate to excellent oral bioavailability in preclinical species and humans. Previous concomitant dosing studies in rats using rifamycin SV, a general organic anion-transporting polypeptide (OATP) inhibitor, suggested that the high oral absorption of azithromycin and clarithromycin may be caused by facilitative uptake by intestinal Oatps. In this study, we used OATP/Oatp-expressing cells to investigate the interaction of macrolides with rat Oatp1a5, human OATP1A2, and human/rat OATP2B1/Oatp2b1. These experiments showed that azithromycin and clarithromycin were potent inhibitors of rat Oatp1a5-mediated taurocholate uptake with apparent inhibitor constant (K(i)) values of 3.3 and 2.4 microM, respectively. The macrolides functioned as noncompetitive inhibitors but were not transport substrates for rat Oatp1a5, as assessed by direct uptake measurements of radiolabeled azithromycin and clarithromycin. cis-Inhibition and direct uptake studies further showed that azithromycin and clarithromycin were only very weak inhibitors and not substrates for human OATP1A2 and human/rat OATP2B1/Oatp2b1. In summary, these results indicate that the macrolides azithromycin and clarithromycin potently inhibit rat Oatp1a5 but do not significantly interact with OATP1A2 and OATP2B1/Oatp2b1. These intestinally expressed OATP/Oatp(s) are not responsible for the postulated facilitative uptake of azithromycin and clarithromycin, and alternative facilitative pathways must exist for their intestinal absorption.
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Pafuramidine is a novel orally active antimalarial. To identify a combination partner, we measured the in vitro antimalarial activities of the active metabolite, DB75, with amodiaquine, artemisinin, atovaquone, azithromycin, chloroquine, clindamycin, mefloquine, piperaquine, pyronaridine, tafenoquine, and tetracycline. None of the drugs tested demonstrated antagonistic or synergistic activity in combination with pafuramidine.
We conducted a case-control investigation among licensed daycare centers (LDCs) in northwest Missouri to determine transmission risk factors, tested isolates for antimicrobial resistance, and described treatment practices. Case LDCs had secondary attack rates of shigellosis>or=2% (range, 2%-25%) and control LDCs
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Medical misuse of antibiotics is associated with the acquisition and spread of antibiotic resistance, resulting in a lack of effective drugs and increased health-care cost. Nevertheless, inappropriate antibiotic use in China remains common and the situation requires urgent improvement. Here, we analyzed the prescriptions of antibiotics and evaluated the rationality of antibiotic use among outpatients in Beijing general hospitals during 2015.
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The antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed following CLSI method for the drugs Amikacin, Azithromycin, Tobramycin, Ceftazidime, Cephotaxime, Cefuroxime, Cefaperazone, Ceftriaxone, Ciprofloxacin, Ofloxacin, Norfloxacin, Gatifloxacin and Moxifloxacin.