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Cetirizine is a safe second generation antihistamine. It is effective especially in the treatment of urticaria and reduces significantly the pruritus of atopic dermatitis. An individual dosage should be chosen based on the severity of symptoms.
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Fexofenadine hydrochloride (HCl) is a new H(1) antihistamine used twice daily in some countries.
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Vacuum collected black (toilet) water contains hormones and pharmaceuticals in relatively high concentrations (μg/L to mg/L range) and separate specific treatment has the potential of minimizing their discharge to surface waters. In this study, the fate of estrogens (natural and synthetical hormones) and pharmaceuticals (paracetamol, metoprolol, propranolol, cetirizine, doxycycline, tetracycline, ciprofloxacin, trimethoprim, carbamazepine, ibuprofen and diclofenac) in the anaerobic treatment of vacuum collected black water followed by nitrogen removal by partial nitritation-anammox was investigated. A new analytical method was developed to detect the presence of several compounds in the complex matrix of concentrated black water. Detected concentrations in black water ranged from 1.1 μg/L for carbamazepine to >1000 μg/L for paracetamol. Anaerobic treatment was only suitable to remove the majority of paracetamol (>90%). Metoprolol was partly removed (67%) during aerobic treatment. Deconjugation could have affected the removal efficiency of ibuprofen as concentrations even increased during anaerobic treatment and only after the anammox treatment 77% of ibuprofen was removed. The presence of persistent micro-pollutants (diclofenac, carbamazepine and cetirizine), which are not susceptible for biodegradation, makes the application of advanced physical and chemical treatment unavoidable.
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To evaluate the effect of levocetirizine on the Total 4 Symptoms Score, the 50% response rate, the Pediatric Rhinitis Quality of Life Questionnaire (PRQLQ), and investigators' global evaluation of symptom improvement.
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To characterize inflammatory cells in the delayed mosquito-bite lesions, and to study the effect of cetirizine on the inflammatory cell response.
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No significant changes in the QT interval and QTc (QT corrected by Bazzett's equation) were observed among children who received astemizole, loratadine or cetirizine, with or without erythromycin. Children who have received terfenadine and erythromycin showed significantly prolonged QT interval (mean pretreatment and posttreatment values 0.32s and 0.34s, respectively). Analysis of the QTc interval, however, showed no significant differences in the group treated with terfenadine and erythromycin (mean values 0.39s and 0.39s, respectively).
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Measurement of domiciliary nasal peak inspiratory flow rate (PIFR) may have a role in the objective assessment of treatment response in seasonal allergic rhinitis (SAR).
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Common cold is an acute illness affecting pediatric population in particular. The use of antihistamines is a common practice, with cetirizine being a frequently used drug with a good safety profile. However, adverse events due to the use of antihistamines have been rarely reported, such as drug-induced dystonia with the use of cetirizine. In our present case, dystonia due to the intake of cetirizine was observed, which the patient responded well to the use of benzodiazapines, namely, clonazepam. We report this case to highlight the occurrence of this adverse event with the use of cetirizine.
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Phase III, multicenter, randomized, double-blind study of patients with a history of grass pollen allergy, confirmed by skin testing/specific IgE, total symptom scores > or =6 (ocular) or > or =8 (nasal). Intent-to-treat analysis.
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The effects of cetirizine (C), a new generation, nonsedative, H1-antihistamine drug, were studied on human isolated bronchi. C is a potent antagonist of the bronchial muscle contraction induced by histamine, irrespective of whether C is administered by cumulative addition or prophylactically. In the former case, this effect of C was significant at a concentration of 3 X 10(-8) mol/L and was maximal at a concentration of 10(-5) mol/L. The -log of concentration of C causing 50% of the maximal effect induced was 7.30 +/- 0.05 (n = 6), and the effect produced was not significantly modified by bronchial epithelium removal. When C was administered prophylactically, the concentration-response curves to histamine were displaced to the right, but the reduction of maximum histamine response suggests a noncompetitive type of antagonism. C is devoid of notable anticholinergic effects. At concentrations of 10(-8) to 10(-7) mol/L, C proved capable of enhancing the relaxant effect produced by salbutamol (10(-7) to 3 X 10(-7) mol/L) on human isolated bronchi that had been contracted by either histamine or acetylcholine (ACh). The synergy appeared to be additive or potentiating, depending on salbutamol (SAL) concentrations. Under similar conditions, mepyramine does not potentiate the effects of SAL against histamine. Finally, at concentrations of 10(-8) to 10(-6) mol/L, C reduced the functional antagonism observed between SAL and ACh, as can be observed by the increase, in the presence of C, of the maximal relaxant effect of SAL on contractions produced by 10(-3) mol/L of ACh. We may, therefore, conclude that C appears to be a specific antihistamine on human isolated bronchi and that it appears to potentiate the bronchodilator effect of SAL on this preparation.
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The purpose of the current study was to mask the taste of cetirizine HCl and to incorporate the granules produced in oral disintegrating tablets (ODT). The bitter, active substance was coated by fluidized bed coating using Eudragit® RL30-D at levels between 15% and 40% w/w. The ODTs were developed by varying the ratio of superdisintegrants such as sodium croscarmellose, crospovidone grades and low substituted hydroxypropyl cellulose (L-HPC). A direct compression process was used to compress the ODTs under various compaction forces to optimize tablet robustness. The properties of the compressed tablets including porosity, hardness, friability and dissolution profiles were further investigated. The in vitro and in vivo evaluation of the tablet disintegration times showed almost identical rapid disintegration below 10 s at the optimal levels of each superdisintegrant. Finally, the taste and sensory evaluation in human volunteers demonstrated excellence in masking the bitter active and tablet palatability.
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In a randomized, double-blind, crossover study, eight atopic and eight healthy subjects received cetirizine (10 mg/day) or placebo for 3 days before cutaneous tests. Intradermal tests (IDT) and prick tests (PT) were performed with BK (20 nmol/ml for IDT and 20 micromol/ml for PT), histamine (100 microg/ml IDT and 100 mg/ml PT), and compound 48/80 (100 microg/ml IDT and 100 mg/ml PT) as positive controls and saline as negative control. The skin responses were monitored by measurement of wheal and flare areas.
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Direct comparisons of antihistamines are rare but very much needed. Newly available antihistamine preparations, levocetirizine, the R-enantiomer of racemate cetirizine, and desloratadine, an active metabolite of loratadine, have been recently released for allergic rhinitis.
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A total of 386 AEs were reported by 287 subjects (0.37%) in the four studies. The most commonly reported treatment-related AEs were fatigue (0.07%), headache (0.07%), dry mouth (0.04%) and nausea (0.03%). Tolerability was rated as excellent/good by 99.1% of investigators and 98.5% of subjects. Desloratadine therapy significantly reduced nasal and ocular symptom severity, itching and wheals, and sleep and activity disruption (p < 0.0001), as indicated by a reduction in mean total and individual symptom scores, and reported impairment of sleep and daily activities. The efficacy of desloratadine was rated as significantly greater by 59.4-88.0% of subjects who had previously received monotherapy with cetirizine, fexofenadine, loratadine or mizolastine (p < 0.01 for all). The percentage of subjects who rated onset of symptom relief with desloratadine as faster than previous treatment ranged from 51.6% to 82.4%.
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H1-type antihistamines are considered the therapeutic agents of choice for treating urticaria and angioedema. The use of traditional H1 antihistamines is limited by their side effects. In recent years low-sedating H1 antihistamines with reduced sedative and anticholinergic side effects have become popular choices for the treatment of urticaria and angioedema. Terfenadine and astemizole are currently available in the United States, and cetirizine and loratadine, currently under review at the Food and Drug Administration, are available in other countries. Terfenadine, cetirizine, and loratadine achieve rapid peak plasma concentrations in 1 to 2 hours, whereas astemizole has a slow onset of action. In double-blind, placebo-controlled studies of chronic idiopathic urticaria, low-sedating H1 antihistamines were more effective than placebo. The choice of a particular low-sedating H1 antihistamine depends on pharmacokinetic considerations and frequency of administration.
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To observe the clinical therapeutic effects of Dishen Qufeng Decoction (DSQFD), a compound traditional Chinese herbal medicine, in treatment of allergic rhinitis.
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Seasonal allergic rhinitis (SAR) can adversely impact children's physical, psychological, and social functioning and well-being, that is, their health-related quality of life (HRQL). This study assessed HRQL in children 6 to 11 years treated with cetirizine HCl syrup, while concurrently assessing symptomatic relief and safety. In an open-label, non-comparative study, 544 children from 124 centers in the United States were instructed to take cetirizine HCl syrup (10 cc of 1 mg/mL) each evening for 4 weeks. Children experienced statistically significant improvements in HRQL with significant reductions in mean symptom score (p < 0.001) during the treatment period. Results were consistent across age groups (6-7, 8-9, 10-11 years). These results suggest that the symptomatic relief and tolerability profile of cetirizine HC1 syrup daily translates into improvements in the HRQL of children with SAR. This 4-week open label study is among the first to evaluate the effect of antihistamine treatment on HRQL outcomes in children.
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The optimised parameters for the separation were: 25 mM buffer electrolyte, buffer pH 2.5, voltage + 25 kV, temperature 25 °C, injection pressure 50 mbar, injection time 3 seconds, capillary 48 cm (effective length 40 cm) x 50 μm, detection at 240 nm. Under these conditions, the analysis time was below 5 minutes, the order of migration being: desloratadine, cetirizine and loratadine. The developed method was validated in terms of linearity, limits of detection and quantiﬁcation, intra- and inter-day precision, selectivity and robustness.
The most common cutaneous adverse event in our cohort was papulopustular rash, followed by eczema and xerosis. Patients were managed with symptom target therapy, and suspension of the EGFR inhibitor was rarely required. As the use of EGFR inhibitors increases, it is important to promptly identify and treat adverse events. Further studies are necessary to develop targeted therapeutic and preventative measures.